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Ultimate Guide to Spanish Pronouns

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Pronouns are essential in any language. All languages have pronouns, in some way or another, though some might not have as many as others. We use pronouns all the time, so not understanding them would mean missing a big part of the conversation. 

They simplify the language and make it possible for us not to repeat ourselves all the time. Sentences would be so much longer if we didn’t use pronouns or some other way of indicating what you’re talking about without constant repetition. 
There are many different kinds of Spanish pronouns, including indirect and direct object pronouns in Spanish, and we’re going to take a look at all of them. If you don’t feel like reading the entire article, you can always look at our list of the Most Useful Spanish Pronouns, even though you’re obviously not going to get as much information.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Spanish Table of Contents
  1. Personal Pronouns
  2. Demonstrative Pronouns
  3. Interrogative Pronouns
  4. Indefinite Pronouns
  5. Spanish Relative Pronouns
  6. How SpanishPod101.com Can Help You Learn More Spanish

1. Personal Pronouns

Introducing Yourself

a) Spanish Subject Pronouns

Let’s begin with something simple: Spanish personal subject pronouns. All languages have subjects, which according to the Cambridge English Dictionary, consist of “the person or thing that performs the action of the verb or is joined to a description by a verb.” In English, these are “I,” you,” etc. In Spanish, we have a few more different subject pronouns than in English. This is because the words for “we” and plural “you” have both a masculine and a feminine form. 

We also have another pronoun for when we want to speak more formally, or when we’re talking to an important person. Nowadays, it’s not very common in Spain, though! That’s why we’re only including it in this first section. In any other section, the pronouns used for the formal “you” are the same as the pronouns for the third person.

One more thing that you need to keep in mind is that in Spanish, the subject is often omitted unless the person we’re talking to doesn’t know who we’re talking about or we want to emphasize it. This is because the verb changes depending on the person, so it already tells who the person is. We’re going to include the subject on all of the following examples, but keep in mind that you won’t usually need to use them. 

  • Yo (“I”)

Yo tengo un hermano.

I have a brother.”

  • (“you”)

tienes un hermano.

You have a brother.”

  • Usted (formal “you”)

Usted tiene un hermano.

You have a brother.”

  • Él / ella (“he” / “she”)

Ella tiene un hermano.

She has a brother.”

  • Nosotros / nosotras (“we”)

Nosotros tenemos un hermano.

We have a brother.”

  • Vosotros / vosotras (“you”)

Vosotros tenéis un hermano.

You have a brother.”

  • Ustedes (formal “you”)

Ustedes tienen un hermano.

You have a brother.”

  • Ellos / ellas (“they”)

Ellos tienen un hermano.

They have a brother.”

Brothers Having Ice Cream

b) Spanish Direct Object Pronouns

An object is something or someone that’s affected by the action of the verb. So, for example, in the sentence Juan tira la pelota (“Juan throws the ball”), la pelota (“the ball”) is the object. This object can be substituted for a pronoun, if what you’re talking about is already known. If you wanted to substitute the object in that sentence for a pronoun, the sentence would become Juan la tira (“Juan throws it“). 

Look at the Spanish pronoun’s placement in the sentence. Even though the object is found after the verb, the pronoun always goes in front of it, as opposed to English.

  • Me (“me”)

Juan me quiere.

“Juan loves me.”

  • Te (“you”)

Te quiero.

“I love you.”

  • Lo / la (“him” / “her”)

La quiero.

“I love her.”

  • Nos (“us”)

Nuestros padres nos quieren.

“Our parents love us.”

  • Os (“you”)

Os queremos.

“We love you.”

  • Los / las (“them”)

Las quiero.

“I love them.”

Mother Kissing Her Baby

c) Spanish Indirect Object Pronouns

These pronouns are very similar to the direct object pronouns. You’ll soon notice that only the third person changes. In English, they’re always the same, unless we rephrase them a little. However, in Spanish, we use them differently. They both go in front of the verb, but they have different meanings. 

To see an example, we can use the same sentence we saw when we explained direct object pronouns, but we’ll add an indirect object to it: Juan tira la pelota a Carlos (“Juan throws the ball to Carlos”). Here, a Carlos (“to Carlos”) is the indirect object. 

Now, to substitute this indirect object for a pronoun, we can transform this sentence in a couple of different ways. If we only wanted to substitute the indirect object, the sentence would become: Juan le tira la pelota (“Juan throws him the ball”). But if we wanted to change both objects, it would be: Juan se la tira (“Juan throws it to him“). You might have noticed that we used a different pronoun, even though they both mean the same thing. 

No need to worry. The third person is the only one that has two different forms, and se is only used when it’s next to direct object pronouns. In all other cases, there’s only one pronoun for both circumstances.

  • Me (“[to/for] me”)

¿Me vas a mandar algo por mi cumpleaños?

“Are you going to send me anything for my birthday?”

  • Te (“[to/for] you”)

Te tengo que devolver el libro.

“I have to give you your book back.”

  • Se/le (“[to/for] him/her”)

Traigo un regalo para mi madre. → Le traigo un regalo. → Se lo traigo.

“I bring a present for my mom.” → “I bring her a present.” → “I bring it to her.”

  • Nos (“[to/for] us”)

Nos han regalado estas toallas.

“They gave us these towels.”

  • Os (“[to/for] you”)

Os voy a decir la verdad.

“I’m going to tell you the truth.”

  • Se/les (“[to/for] them”)

He hecho una tortilla para mis amigos. → Les he hecho una tortilla. → Se la he hecho.

“I made an omelette for my friends.” → “I made them an omelette.” → “I made it for them.”

Tortilla de Patatas

d) Spanish Prepositional Pronouns

The following pronouns are also personal, but they’re a bit different than the others. We call them “prepositional” because they always follow a preposition. (P.S.: Be sure to check out the video above about the most common Spanish prepositions!) 

Once again, the translation into English is the same as the object pronouns, but they’re not the same in Spanish.

  • (“me”)

No te rías de .

“Don’t laugh at me.”

  • Ti (“you”)

Sin ti todo es diferente.

“Everything is different without you.”

  • Él / ella (“him” / “her”)

Soy feliz con él.

“I’m happy with him.”

  • Nosotros / nosotras (“us”)

Para nosotros no es lo mismo.

“It’s not the same to us.”

  • Vosotros / vosotras (“you”)

Esto lo he hecho por vosotras.

“I have done this for you.”

  • Ellos / ellas (“them”)

El gato es de ellos.

“The cat is from them.”

Whenever you find the preposition con (“with”) in front of the pronouns (“me”) and ti (“you”), we actually need to put the two words together and change them a little bit, to conmigo (“with me”) and contigo (“with you”), specifically. For example: Estoy bien contigo (“I’m fine with you”).

e) Spanish Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns do go after the verb, just like in English. However, there’s an important difference between them and their English counterparts: English uses one pronoun per person, independently of the gender or number of the word. In Spanish, each pronoun has four different forms. We’re going to be nice and include all of them, but just so you know, they always have the same ending. Masculine singular words end in –o, feminine singular words end in –a, and whenever it’s plural, you add an -s to the previous ending.

  • Mío / mía / míos / mías (“mine”)

Este móvil es mío.

“This phone is mine.”

  • Tuyo / tuya / tuyos / tuyas (“yours”)

Esta pelota es tuya.

“This ball is yours.”

  • Suyo / suya / suyos / suyas (“his” / “hers”)

Los pañuelos son suyos.

“The tissues are his/hers.”

  • Nuestro / nuestra / nuestros / nuestras (“ours”)

El coche es nuestro.

“The car is ours.”

  • Vuestro / vuestra / vuestros / vuestras (“yours”)

Las muñecas son vuestras.

“The dolls are yours.”

  • Suyo / suya / suyos / suyas (“theirs”)

La casa es suya.

“The house is theirs.”

f) Spanish Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns in Spanish always need to be the same person as the subject of the verb, just like in English. Even though all of these pronouns have an equivalent in English, we use them a lot more in Spanish, and very often when we translate one of these sentences, they aren’t actually used in English. Well, we could add them, but it would be very unnecessary.

This is because Spanish has some verbs which are known as reflexive, that always need one of these pronouns in order to make sense. To learn more about them, check out our lesson “What are Reflexive Verbs?

  • Me (“myself”)

Aún me tengo que maquillar.

“I still need to put on my makeup.”

  • Te (“yourself”)

¿A qué hora te has levantado?

“What time did you wake up?”

  • Se (“himself” / “herself”)

Se llama Paula.

“Her name is Paula.”

  • Nos (“ourselves”)

Nos vamos a peinar antes de salir.

“We’re going to brush our hair before going out.”

  • Os (“yourselves”)

¿Os podéis sentar?

“Could you sit down?”

  • Se (“themselves”)

Los niños se van a duchar ahora.

“The kids are going to shower now.”

2. Demonstrative Pronouns

Woman Looking in the Distance

In Spanish, demonstrative pronouns are quite similar to those in English, but there are a couple of differences. One of them is that while English only has a form for the singular and one for the plural, Spanish also takes feminine words into account. This shouldn’t surprise you at this stage, because they work just like possessive pronouns, which we saw previously. There’s also a sort of neutral gender in demonstrative pronouns, which are esto, eso, and aquello. Even though they end in –o and therefore look like the masculine gender, they’re neutral because they’re not linked to a specific noun; they’re kind of saying “this/that thing.”

Just like in English, we use este (“this”) when something is close, and ese (“that”) when it’s far. But Spanish adds a third demonstrative pronoun, which is aquel. The secret to understanding these three pronouns is to link them to different people. No, we don’t mean specific people. Este (“this”) is linked to yo (“I”), which is the speaker, while ese (“that”) is linked to (“you”), which is the person we’re talking to. However, aquel (once again, “that”) is linked to someone else who isn’t part of the conversation. 

This is exactly what happens to the other three pronouns we have in this Spanish pronouns list, which are completely related to the previous ones (as you’ll see in the following examples). These are aquí, ahí, and allí. Aquí means “here,” while ahí refers to something that isn’t very close, and allí refers to something that’s a lot farther away.

In the past, these pronouns used to have an accent, so they were spelled éste, ése, and aquél instead. However, a few years ago, the Real Academia Española (RAE) decided to delete them for good, so now you don’t need to worry about them anymore.

  • Este / esto / esta / estos / estas (“this” / “these”)

Este de aquí es mi primo.

This one here is my cousin.”

  • Ese / eso / esa / esos / esas (“that” / “those”)

Estos coches no me gustan, prefiero esos.

“I don’t like these cars, I prefer those.”

  • Aquel / aquello / aquella / aquellos / aquellas (“that” / “those”)

Aquel suele ir al bar del puerto.

That one often goes to the bar at the port.” 

  • Aquí (“here”) 

Es la primera vez que vengo aquí.

“This is the first time I’ve come here.”

  • Ahí (“there”)

En ese banco de ahí nunca se sienta nadie.

“No one ever sits on that bench over there.”

  • Allí (“there”)

Antes solía subir aquella montaña y sentarme ahí arriba.

“I used to climb up that mountain and sit up there.”

3. Interrogative Pronouns

Basic Questions

Interrogative pronouns in Spanish aren’t hard to learn, because they work exactly the same way as in English. It’s the first word in a sentence, and just like most of them in English start with wh-, in Spanish most of them start with the sound [k], which in this case can be represented by q– or c-. For more examples, take a look at our Top 15 Questions You Should Know for Conversations.

  • Qué (“what”)

¿Qué vas a hacer este verano?
What are you going to do this summer?”

  • Cuál (“which”)

¿Cuál de ellos es Carlos?

Which one of them is Carlos?”

  • Por qué (“why”)

¿Por qué te tienes que ir tan pronto?

Why do you have to leave so soon?”

  • Quién (“who”)

¿Quién eres?

Who are you?”

  • Dónde (“where”)

¿Dónde viven tus abuelos?

Where do your grandparents live?”

  • Cuánto (“how much”)

¿Cuánto cuesta esta falda?

How much does this skirt cost?”

  • Cuántos/cuántas (“how many”)

¿Cuántas hermanas tienes?

How many sisters do you have?”

¿Cuántos años tienes?

How old are you?”

  • Cuándo (“when”)

¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños?

When is your birthday?”

4. Indefinite Pronouns

Improve Listening

When it comes to indefinite pronouns in Spanish, some are similar to those in English and some are not. Here’s a list that will surely be useful.

  • Alguno (“some”)

Seguro que alguno de ellos irá.

“I’m sure some of them will go.”

  • Alguien (“someone” or “anyone”)

¿Hay alguien que pueda recogerme en el aeropuerto?

“Is there anyone who can pick me up at the airport?”

  • Algo (“something”)

Hay algo que te tengo que preguntar.

“There is something I need to ask you.”

  • Otro/s (“another”)

Se te ha ensuciado la bufanda, ¿no tienes otra?

“You got your scarf dirty, don’t you have another one?”

  • Cualquiera (“anyone”)

Puedes preguntárselo a cualquiera.

“You can ask anyone.”

  • Mucho/s (“many”)

Muchos de mis amigos van a la universidad.

Many of my friends go to university.”

  • Todo (“all” or “everything”)

Todo lo que dice Marta es mentira.

Everything that Marta says is a lie.”

  • Todos (“everyone”)

Todos te van a decir lo mismo.

Everyone is going to tell you the same thing.”

  • Nada (“nothing” or “anything”)

No quiero nada para mi cumpleaños.

“I don’t want anything for my birthday.”

  • Nadie (“nobody”)

No conozco a nadie que viva en Madrid.

“I don’t know anyone who lives in Madrid.”

  • Ninguno (“none”)

Ninguno de mis amigos va a ir a la fiesta.

None of my friends is going to the party.”

Lonely Person

5. Spanish Relative Pronouns

One good thing about relative pronouns in Spanish is that we don’t have any confusion between “who” and “whom.” We do have a specific word for “whose,” which is cuyo, but it’s not as widely used, even though we have included it in the list below. The pronoun quien (“who”) is actually not used very much either, as we often just use the pronoun que (“that”).

Notice that most of these are similar to interrogative pronouns. However, there’s an important difference: interrogative questions have accents, such as dónde (“where”), while relative pronouns don’t.

  • Que (“that”)

Este es el chico que te dije.

“This is the guy (that) I told you about.” 

  • El cual / la cual / los cuales / las cuales (“which”)

Esta es la casa en la cual creció mi abuela.

“This is the house in which my grandmother grew up.”

  • Quien / quienes (“who”)

Esta es la chica a quien vi en el parque.

“This is the girl (who) I saw in the park.”

  • Cuyo / cuya / cuyos / cuyas (“whose”)

Juan, cuyo hermano murió el año pasado, va a venir a vernos.

“Juan, whose brother died last year, is going to come visit us.”

  • Donde (“where”)

Aquí es donde nos conocimos.

“This is where we first met.”

6. How SpanishPod101.com Can Help You Learn More Spanish

You might have noticed that even though there are some exceptions, pronouns in Spanish work quite similarly as those in English, which definitely makes them easier to learn. Even though there are several types of Spanish pronouns, they should all make sense to someone who speaks English, even if it’s not as a first language. 

Now that you’ve taken the time to study Spanish pronouns, which usually substitute nouns, it would be a good idea to learn the 50 most common nouns in Spanish, wouldn’t it? At SpanishPod101.com, you’ll learn everything you need—and sometimes even things you wouldn’t expect to learn, such as all these untranslatable words in Spanish that you’ll probably find interesting. 

Before you go, let us know in the comments how you feel about Spanish pronouns now. More confident, or is there something you’re still struggling with? We look forward to hearing what you have to say!

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The Basics of Spanish Word Order

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We might not always like to admit this when we’re starting to learn a language, but the truth is that one can’t speak properly without knowing how to put sentences together. If you use the wrong word order, there’s a chance that what you’re saying might have a different meaning than what you intended, or it might have no meaning at all. 

To avoid this, here’s the perfect article for you to learn Spanish sentence structure. You’ll soon learn that Spanish word order is actually not so hard, and that, in some ways, it’s similar to word order in English. You’ll also learn that, in fact, it’s more flexible! That means you can change the order of words a little bit more than you can in English.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Spanish Table of Contents
  1. Overview of Word Order in Spanish
  2. Basic Word Order with Subject, Verb, and Object
  3. Word Order in Negative Sentences
  4. Word Order with Prepositional Phrases
  5. Word Order with Modifiers
  6. Changing a Sentence into a Yes-or-No Question
  7. Translation Exercises
  8. How to Master Spanish with SpanishPod101.com

1. Overview of Word Order in Spanish

Improve Listening

Basic Spanish language word order refers to the usual order in which words are found in a sentence. Even though the sentences that we use day-to-day may have other elements in them, to learn this basic order, there are three basic elements that we use as a reference. These three elements are the subject, verb, and object.

Despite Spanish being more flexible than English in this sense, our basic word order is the same: 

subject + verb + object (SVO)

Yo + me comí + la tarta

I + ate + the cake

Sometimes, we might want to emphasize one element or another in a sentence. This leads us to moving these around the sentence, but they will keep the same (or very similar) meaning. In English, because the ability to move words in a sentence is quite limited, emphasizing an element is accomplished by intonation. 

Let’s look at two sentences. The first one has basic word order, and the other one has a different order. In the second sentence, the emphasized word is marked in bold:

Example: Yo me comí la tarta

Translation: “I ate the cake.”

Example: Me la comí yo, la tarta.

Translation: “I ate the cake.”

Man Eating Cake

There’s a way of modifying the English sentence to emphasize this element even more: “It is I that ate the cake.” However, this wouldn’t be an accurate translation of our example in Spanish, because in English, we’re not just moving an element around: we’re changing the whole structure. 

Did you notice that we actually added an extra word in our second Spanish sentence? If you did, we just want to say: Nice job! The word that we added was a pronoun, and don’t worry, we’ll explain it a little bit later.

We could still modify our sample sentence a bit more:

Example: La tarta me la comí yo.

Translation: “The cake, I ate.”

In this case, we can translate this new structure pretty much literally, but in English, we feel like this sounds quite unnatural. In Spanish, this is completely normal.

2. Basic Word Order with Subject, Verb, and Object

Now, let’s go more into detail about the most basic Spanish word order rules.

1 – Subject

Subject is the person or thing performing the action of the verb. It’s usually a noun phrase, such as a noun or a pronoun: Juan come espaguetis. (“Juan eats spaghetti.”) / Él come espaguetis. (“He eats spaghetti.”). 

Sometimes, the subject might be a verb: Cantar es divertido. (“Singing is fun.”). However, as we’ve explained in previous articles, in Spanish, a subject isn’t always necessary and we often drop pronouns when we already know who the subject is: Como espaguetis. (“I eat spaghetti.”). 

As we saw in our previous article about verb conjugation in Spanish, the verb como is conjugated, and considering the verb is conjugated in the first person singular, we know it means “I eat,” so there’s no possible confusion.

2 – Verb

The second element in Spanish word order is verbs. You know what verbs are, don’t you? According to the Cambridge Dictionary, a verb is “a word or phrase that describes an action, condition, or experience.” 

To give you a few examples: cantar (“to sing”), comer (“to eat”), and hablar (“to talk”) are all verbs. Without them, language wouldn’t make much sense.

3 – Object

The third and last element in basic word order is something we call an object. It isn’t an indispensable element in a sentence, as some verbs don’t require objects, but it’s undoubtedly common and helps us define sentence structure. 

Cambridge defines an object as “a noun or noun phrase that is affected by the action of a verb or that follows a preposition.” In the sentence Juan come espaguetis. (“Juan eats spaghetti.”), spaghetti is the thing that is being eaten by Juan.

Spaghetti Dish

3. Word Order in Negative Sentences 

In some languages, negative sentences can completely change an affirmative sentence. Lucky for you, in this sense, Spanish happens to be quite simple. So, what is the Spanish word order for these negative sentences?

To form a regular negative sentence, all we need to do is add the word no, which in this context is equivalent to “not,” to an affirmative sentence. No is always found before the verb. To illustrate this, let’s use the same example we did before: Juan no come espaguetis. (“Juan does not eat spaghetti.”).

As you know, there are other ways of making a negative sentence. One example would be to add nunca (“never”): Juan nunca come espaguetis. (“Juan never eats spaghetti.”). As you can see, it follows exactly the same structure as the previous example. Simple, right? 

Well, there are many other negative words: nada (“nothing”), nadie (“nobody”), ninguno (“none”)… When we use these words, the structure is a bit different, because they can be used in different ways. They can act as subjects or as objects. 

For example: Nadie ha comido espaguetis. (“Nobody has eaten spaghetti.”). Here we find the word nadie before the verb, just as we saw in the previous negative sentences. However, that makes sense, because it acts as a subject. 

Since we’re mentioning this, we should explain that sometimes these words might be found after the verb, even if they’re a subject. Here are a few examples:

  • No hay nadie. → “There isn’t anyone.”
  • No hay nada. → “There isn’t anything.”
  • No queda ninguno. → “There is none left.”
Empty Street

The negative word in bold in each of these examples is the subject of the sentence, even though it might not be as obvious as in the other examples we’ve seen. We could say that the word in bold is “the thing that isn’t.” 

As you might have noticed, the adverb no does appear at the beginning of the sentence, something that happens similarly in the English translation. As you’ll find out in our lesson “How to Be Negative?” in Spanish, it’s quite common to have more than one negative word in one sentence.

4. Word Order with Prepositional Phrases

Another element that needs to be taken into account when talking about word order is prepositional phrases. A prepositional phrase is a type of phrase that always begins with a preposition, such as en (“in,” “on,” “at”) or con (“with”). If you would like to find out more about prepositions, we have an article just for you! Check out our article about Spanish prepositions.

Prepositional phrases are usually found at the end of a sentence, but some of them can be placed at the beginning if you want to emphasize said phrase. Let’s look at some examples of Spanish word order that show this: 

Estudio español en casa. → “I study Spanish at home.”

But what if someone asked us: 

¿Dónde estudias español? → “Where do you study Spanish?”

In this case, a possible answer we could give them would be:

En casa, estudio español. → “At home, I learn Spanish.”

There are many other prepositional phrases we could add to the same sentence, even together, such as: 

Estudio español en casa con SpanishPod101.com. → “I study Spanish at home with SpanishPod101.com.”

Man Studying at Home

5. Word Order with Modifiers

We’ve already seen a type of modifier, which were the ones that turned affirmative sentences into negative sentences. However, there are many more elements in sentences that we call modifiers. These include words such as articles, adjectives, and pronouns.

Determiners are easy, because they always go in front of a noun, just like in English. These are, among others, articles, numerals, and possessives. Let’s look at examples for these types of modifiers:

Articles: El hombre come espaguetis. → “The man eats spaghetti.”

Numerals: Dos hombres comen espaguetis. → “Two men eat spaghetti.”

Possessives: Mi padre come espaguetis. → “My father eats spaghetti.”

However, in Spanish word order, adjectives normally go after the noun, but there are exceptions. For example, in literature, especially poetry, it’s common to write the adjective before the noun. Check out our article on adjectives for more information!

El coche blanco es de mi padre. → “The white car is my dad’s.”

La hermosa princesa abrió los ojos. → “The beautiful princess opened her eyes.”

Pronouns can go either before or after the verb, depending on the kind of pronoun they are, or sometimes depending on what you feel like saying. As we learned in our previous article about pronouns, there are different kinds of pronouns in Spanish. Even though we also talked about the order they follow in that article, we’ll look at them again, one by one:

1 – Personal Pronouns

If you read the article we just mentioned, you might remember that there are many kinds of personal pronouns. 

a) Subject Pronouns

Subject pronouns, which are the ones we use for the subject of a sentence, are always found before the verb. This is because, as we saw, in Spanish, the subject is always the first element in a sentence. 

Ellos quieren una casa nueva. → “They want a new house.”

b) Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns and Reflexive Pronouns

You probably remember that basic word order in Spanish is subject + verb + object, don’t you? Well, when a direct or indirect object is substituted by a pronoun, the pronoun is actually found before the verb. We’ll illustrate this with a few examples:

Direct object: 

Quieren una casa nueva. → La quieren.

“They want a new house.” → “They want it.”

Both direct and indirect objects: 

Traigo un regalo para mi madre. → Le traigo un regalo. → Se lo traigo.

“I bring a present for my mom.” → “I bring her a present.” → “I bring it to her.”

Reflexive pronouns work in a very similar way and they’re always found before the verb:

Mis padres se van de vacaciones. → “My parents are going on vacation.”  

c) Prepositional Pronouns

Prepositional pronouns follow the same rules that prepositional phrases do, so they can be in different locations inside a sentence depending on what you would like to emphasize.

Sin ti todo es diferente. → “Without you, everything is different.”

Todo es diferente sin ti. → “Everything is different without you.”

d) Possessive Pronouns

A possessive pronoun can be a subject or an object, so its order will depend on the function it does in the sentence:

El nuestro es ese. → “Ours is that one.”

La casa es nuestra. → “The house is ours.” 

2 – Demonstrative Pronouns

Just like what happened with possessive pronouns, demonstrative pronouns can be in different places in the same sentence, depending on their function.

Este es mi hermano. → “This is my brother.”

Nunca he estado ahí. → “I have never been there.”

3 – Interrogative Pronouns

Interrogative pronouns are pronouns that help us ask questions, and they’re always the first word in a question:

¿Qué quieres? → “What do you want?”

4 – Indefinite Pronouns

Once again, indefinite pronouns don’t have a specific position in a sentence, because that depends on their function.

Todos quieren dinero. → Everyone wants money.”

Puedes preguntárselo a cualquiera. → “You can ask anyone.”

5 – Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns are never found in simple sentences. Rather, we find them in complex sentences. These pronouns always start the second part of the sentence, so they’ll always be in the middle. This might sound odd if you’re not sure what a relative pronoun is, but you’ll understand once you look at an example:

Esta es mi prima que vive en la ciudad. → “This is my cousin who lives in the city.”

6. Changing a Sentence into a Yes-or-No Question

Improve Pronunciation

In many languages, to transform a normal sentence into a yes-or-no question you must change it a fair bit, or change the order. In Spanish, this is way simpler. So, what is the Spanish word order in questions? Look at these examples:

Estudias español todos los días. → “You study Spanish every day.” 

¿Estudias español todos los días? → “Do you study Spanish every day?” 

As you probably noticed, it’s exactly the same structure. This doesn’t only happen with specific structures: it happens every time you turn a sentence, either affirmative or negative, into a yes-or-no question. 

We’re sure you enjoyed learning this, but you probably know that there are other kinds of questions. If you feel a bit lost when it comes to this topic, you might enjoy our lesson on 15 Questions You Should Know

7. Translation Exercises

We thought it would be useful to you to see how we transform a simple sentence into more complex sentences, and translate them to English. Below, you can see exactly what changes we make.

1. Bebiste agua. → “You drank water.”

2. Bebiste agua hace cinco minutos. → “You drank water five minutes ago.”

In this second sentence, the only thing we added was the time the action happened, hace cinco minutos, which means “five minutes ago.”

3. Bebiste dos botellas de agua hace cinco minutos. → “You drank two bottles of water five minutes ago.” 

In this third sentence, we made a bigger change. This time, what we’re drinking isn’t just water, but something slightly more specific: two bottles of water. The new object is dos botellas de agua instead of just agua.

4. ¿Bebiste dos botellas de agua hace cinco minutos? → “Did you drink two bottles of water five minutes ago?”

To end these examples, we thought it would be a good idea to show you once again how to turn an affirmative sentence into a question, to convince you that we don’t have to make any changes to it, just in case you didn’t believe us before!

Woman Drinking Water

8. How to Master Spanish with SpanishPod101.com

As we mentioned previously, Spanish word order is more flexible than English word order, so in some cases, if you don’t use our basic order, it might just seem as if you’re trying to emphasize some word or phrase in particular. The way we see it, it means you would have to try pretty hard to get it wrong! When learning a foreign language, this is exactly the kind of motivation you need.

For more information on Spanish word order, SpanishPod101.com has another short lesson on this as well! If you want to get a better understanding of Spanish grammar in general, also check out our relevant page.

No matter what your level is, give us a try and learn Spanish! From beginner to advanced, here you’ll find everything you need.

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there’s anything that’s still not clear about Spanish word order. We’ll do our best to help you out!

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How to Compliment in Spanish: Spanish Compliment Guide

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Hacer un cumplido, lanzar un piropo, or un halago: to compliment someone in Spanish.

Spanish is a Latin language, also known as one of the romance languages. While this doesn’t mean the language is romantic by nature, there are plenty of sweet Spanish compliments you can offer someone to warm their heart.

So, how do you say “compliment” in Spanish? Compliments in Spanish are known as piropos, halagos, or cumplidos.

If you’re planning to travel to Spain or Latin America, you’ll come across many of those. You’ll be amazed by how we compliment anyone on anything. It’s our way of encouraging each other!

Whenever I’m with some foreigner friends around my city, they’re always in awe about how we naturally call anyone guapo or guapa. This is certainly different from other Eastern European cultures, where people are more discreet and reserved.

Ever wonder how to compliment someone in Spanish? Well, you’re in the right place. In this article, you’ll learn how to compliment in Spanish, whether to get the attention of someone you like, give your compliments to the chef after eating a delicious meal, or congratulate your coworkers after a presentation.

Sometimes body language can be enough. But we don’t usually keep compliments to ourselves!

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Table of Contents

  1. Compliments in Spanish About How Someone Looks
  2. Compliments in Spanish for Someone’s Work
  3. Compliments in Spanish About Someone’s Personality or Lifestyle
  4. Compliments in Spanish on Someone’s Skills
  5. How to Make Your Compliment in Spanish More Sincere
  6. What to Expect After Giving Compliments in Spanish
  7. Conclusion

1. Compliments in Spanish About How Someone Looks

Compliments

Compliments are very common in the Spanish-speaking world, whether they’re used to flirt with, seduce, or praise someone. If you’ve just started learning Spanish, it may be hard to understand when you’re being complimented, or even how to compliment someone naturally. Here, we’re going to cover some nice Spanish compliments you can use to let someone know you like them (or just like their style).

Learn how to say a compliment in Spanish to a woman:

  • Qué guapa eres.
    “How pretty.”
  • Eres muy bonita.
    “You are beautiful.”
  • Estás muy guapa.
    “You are very pretty.”
  • Estás muy bonita hoy.
    “You are very pretty today.”
  • Te ves muy guapa.
    “You look beautiful.”
  • Qué guapa, ¿no?
    “How pretty, aren’t you?”

You can find out more about adjectives and how they work in our complete guide to Spanish Adjectives on SpanishPod101, or our related vocabulary list.

Now, here are some Spanish compliments to a man:

  • Qué guapo.
    “How handsome.”
  • Qué bonito.
    “How handsome.”
  • Te ves muy guapo hoy.
    “You look handsome today.”

There are some adjectives that can be used for both men and women.

  • Tienes unos ojos muy hermosos.
    “You have beautiful eyes.”
  • Tienes una sonrisa muy bonita.
    “You have a beautiful smile.”
  • Qué elegante.
    “Looking elegant.”
  • Te ves muy bien.
    “Looking very good.”
  • Haces que quiera ser una mejor persona.
    “You make me want to be a better person.”
  • Tienes un cabello muy bonito.
    “You have beautiful hair.”
  • Tienes unas manos muy bonitas.
    “You have beautiful hands.”
  • Me encanta tu vestido.
    “I love your dress.”
  • Te quedan muy bien esas gafas.
    “You look good with those glasses.”

Looking for some cute Spanish compliments? Here’s how you can praise a lovely couple:

  • Qué linda pareja.
    “What a beautiful couple.”

If you want to compliment on someone’s clothes, such as a jacket, tie, or blouse, you can say something like:

  • Qué lindo/a______.
    “What a beautiful______.”
  • Qué linda chaqueta.
    “What a beautiful jacket.”
  • Qué chula tu chaqueta.
    “Your jacket looks cool.”
  • Esa camiseta te queda muy bien.
    “That shirt looks very good on you.”

2. Compliments in Spanish for Someone’s Work

A Different Type of Jobs

If you’re learning Spanish because you’re planning to move to a Spanish-speaking country for work, this section is for you. Learn some compliments in Spanish to praise someone for their work.

Or perhaps you want to know how well you’re doing your job. We all like to get some compliments sometimes, so you should understand a compliment in Spanish if you get one.

  • Buen trabajo.
    “Good job.”
  • Lo has hecho muy bien.
    “You did very well.”
  • Me ha encantado la presentación.
    “I loved your presentation.”
  • Qué idea tan genial.
    “What a great idea.”
  • La manera en que has solucionado el problema fue genial.
    “The way you approached the issue was amazing.”
  • Solo has estado estudiando español tres meses, pero hablas muy bien.
    “You have only been studying Spanish for three months, but you speak very well.”
  • Tu curriculum es impresionante.
    “Your CV is impressive.”

For more good Spanish compliments for the workplace, study our vocabulary list of the Top 15 Compliments in Spanish that you always want to hear.

3. Compliments in Spanish About Someone’s Personality or Lifestyle

Sport Person on the Top.

It’s always awesome to hear compliments from friends and family because it reinforces the way they see us. If you want to praise someone in Spanish on an aspect of their personality, this section is for you. Make them feel good with these compliments in Spanish.

  • Juan es muy buena persona.
    “Juan is a very good person.”
  • María es muy trabajadora. (female)
    “María is a hard worker.”
  • Pedro es muy trabajador. (male)
    “Pedro is a hard worker.”

The following adjectives can be used for both men and women. Remember that you have to change the last letter of the adjective depending on the subject’s gender: -o for masculine and -a for feminine.

  • Eres un aventurero(a).
    “You are adventurous.”
  • Luis is muy cariñoso.
    “Luis is very affectionate.”
  • Estás siempre alegre.
    “You are always cheerful.”
  • Pareces muy seguro (a).
    “You look very confident.”
  • Marta es muy coqueto.
    “Marta is very flirtatious.”
  • Manuel es muy simpático.
    “Manuel is very friendly.”
  • Eres muy divertido (a).
    “You are funny.”
  • Eres muy gracioso (a).
    “You are very funny.”
  • Estás en buena forma.
    “You are in good shape.”
  • Abigail es una mujer Independiente.
    “Abigail is an independent woman.”
  • José es muy inteligente.
    “José is very smart.”
  • Martha es muy interesante.
    “Martha is very interesting.”
  • Manuel es muy tranquilo (a).
    “Manuel is very laid back.”
  • Mary es muy amable.
    “Mary is very nice.”
  • Jorge is muy abierto (a).
    “Jorge is very open-minded.”
  • Santiago es muy romántico (a).
    “Santiago is very romantic.”
  • Lucía es muy sexy.
    “Lucía is very sexy.”
  • Esther es muy dulce.
    “Esther is very sweet.”

4. Compliments in Spanish on Someone’s Skills

Chef Presenting His Meal.

You can also compliment someone in Spanish about their skills by following this formula. Fill in the blank with the verb or action you want to reinforce:

  • Tú _____ muy bien. Ex: Tú cocinas muy bien.
    “You ____ well.” Ex: “You cook very well.”

In Spanish, you can use the pronoun if you want. Let’s check some examples:

  • Tú cantas muy bien.
    Cantas muy bien.
    “You sing well.”
  • Tú escribes muy bien.
    Escribes muy bien.
    “You write well.”
  • Tú cocinas muy bien.
    Cocinas muy bien.
    “You cook well.”
  • Juegas al fútbol muy bien.
    “You play football very well.”
  • Pintas muy bien.
    “You paint very well.”
  • Hablas muy bien español.
    “You speak Spanish very well.”

When you’re complimenting a thing, you’re also indirectly praising the person with (or responsible for) that thing as well. For example, if you say that a song is beautiful, you’re praising the singer; if you’re amazed by how a dish tastes, you’re praising the cook.

Let’s see how to praise in Spanish:

  • Esta comida está deliciosa.
    “This food is delicious.”
  • La película es muy divertida.
    “The movie is very funny.”
  • La fotografía era espectacular.
    “The picture was spectacular.”
  • La comida huele muy bien.
    “The food smells very nice.”
  • Qué buena pinta tiene la comida.
    “The food looks amazing.”

5. How to Make Your Compliment in Spanish More Sincere

Woman Hiding Something

In this section, you’ll learn how to say a compliment in Spanish and sound sincere.

When you’re complimenting someone in Spanish, you should look them in the eyes; sometimes you can touch the other person on the shoulder or even give them a hug (really!). Yes, you will know when and to whom. Remember that in Spain and Latin America, it’s okay to touch each other.

Smile while delivering the compliment, and don’t expect anything in return (although you may get a sincere thank you or a compliment from the person).

These are some things you should not do when complimenting someone in Spanish (and actions to watch out for in others):

  • You should not over-compliment someone in Spanish. Sometimes when people compliment for the sake of it, the compliment loses value.
  • Sometimes people compliment you because they want something in return. Well, you should not do that to someone, and you need to know when someone is doing it to you. How can you know?

Well, they usually won’t look you in your eyes, and they’ll have a fake smile. Sometimes you can sense it, but just because Spanish isn’t your first language, you may get confused.

You can find these types of people outside of the touristic sites in Spain. They’ll tell you something nice, expecting you to buy something in return.

When you’re being complimented, be humble and try to offer the person a compliment in return. You can also just say: Gracias muy amable. (“Thanks, you are very kind.” )

6. What to Expect After Giving Compliments in Spanish

Positive Feelings

When you’re complimenting someone in Spanish, you should always say thank you (even if you don’t really agree). Otherwise, you may come across as rude.

In the Spanish-speaking world, you’ll get compliments on anything you do. So here are some tips on how to reply when you get a compliment in Spanish.

  • Gracias, eres muy amable.
    “Thanks, you are very kind.”
  • Gracias por el cumplido.
    “Thanks for the compliment.”

How a person feels after receiving a compliment depends on the person’s personality. You may encounter someone who feels very comfortable with the compliment, and simply thanks you for it.

On the other hand, some people may be very shy and uncomfortable, and don’t say anything at all. Don’t take it personally.

You may also compliment someone who’s very humble, in which case you may get a reply such as:

  • Gracias por el cumplido, pero cualquier persona puede hacerlo.
    “Thanks for the compliment, but anyone could do it.”
  • Gracias, pero podría haberlo hecho mejor.
    “Thanks, but I could have done it better.”
  • Gracias, pero no creo que lo haya hecho tan bien.
    “Thanks, but I don’t think I have done well enough.”

Either way, you should always express your gratitude when getting a compliment:

¡Gracias!

7. Conclusion

In this guide, you’ve learned the most common Spanish compliments, how to compliment a girl or a boy, how to thank the cook after a delicious meal, plus some praising words in Spanish. Would you like to know more about compliments in Spanish? Do you feel ready to express gratitude and praise someone in Spanish?

SpanishPod101 has many resources, from vocabulary lists, audio recordings, and more free content to boost your learning and keep it entertaining and fun.

Good luck!

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Learn Gender in Spanish: Spanish Gender Rules

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The gender of nouns in Spanish is part of a noun’s identity. We won’t be able to use a noun correctly without its corresponding article. If English (or another language with genderless nouns) is your first language, you probably freaked out when you found out that nouns have gender in Spanish. We admit that it does sound a little scary at first.

But hey, if it makes you feel better, at least Spanish isn’t like German, which has three genders, or like Polish, which has a few more than that. Or Swedish, which has two genders that aren’t feminine or masculine. There are many languages that use genders.

Fortunately, we only have two genders, and we plan on keeping them. They might not always make sense to a foreigner (I mean, why would a chair be feminine?), but they do make sense to us and it would sound really funny if someone didn’t use them right. This is why we’re about to teach you all you need to know about gender in Spanish.

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Table of Contents

  1. Spanish Language Gender Rules: How Does it Work?
  2. How to Make a Good Guess on the Gender of a Word
  3. How to Memorize the Gender of a Word
  4. Animals
  5. How SpanishPod101.com Can Help You Learn More Spanish

1. Spanish Language Gender Rules: How Does it Work?

Let’s start with something simple: the word for “gender” in Spanish is género, and our two genders are femenino (“feminine” ) and masculino (“masculine” ). That’s easy; everyone knows these two genders.

Now, how is the Spanish language affected by gender? As we mentioned previously, this topic mostly revolves around nouns. That means that every noun has one gender or the other, and that the words around it (which are articles, adjectives, and sometimes, pronouns) must match that gender.

However, we’re going to be mostly focusing on the gender of Spanish nouns, and will help you a little bit with adjectives and articles. The reason we won’t be talking about pronouns is because we’ll be publishing an article about pronouns soon, so keep your eyes peeled! If you can’t wait, check out our list of the most useful Spanish pronouns.

Feminine and Maculine

1 – Articles

The most common structure for nouns in Spanish is (article) + noun + (adjective), so we’re going to follow this structure and talk about Spanish article gender rules first.

In English, there are two articles, which are “the” and “a(n),” but Spanish has a few more. Don’t let this frighten you, but we have a total of eight articles. Yes, eight. The reason we have so many is because they change according to both gender and number.

Definite articles (“the” ) → “the kid” or “the kids”

  • Masculine, singular: el → el niño
  • Feminine, singular: la → la niña
  • Masculine, plural: los → los niños
  • Feminine, plural: las → las niñas

Indefinite articles (“a,” “an,” “some” ) → “a kid” or “some kids”

  • Masculine, singular: un → un niño
  • Feminine, singular: una → una niña
  • Masculine, plural: unos → unos niños
  • Feminine, plural: unas → unas niñas

Children Wearing Costumes

2 – Nouns

As you know, when talking about genders in Spanish, nouns are the most important. Basically, each noun has been assigned to be masculine or feminine. We don’t really get a say in this; we’ve all learned that this is the way Spanish works and we’ve accepted it.

Spanish mostly comes from Latin, which also has genders (three, actually), so a lot of these genders have just been passed on from Latin or other languages that have influenced Spanish over the centuries.

We could say some of these genders make more sense than others. For example, la mujer (“the woman” ) is obviously feminine, but un brazo (“an arm” ) is masculine and una pierna (“a leg” ) is feminine. We can’t really explain why, other than the ending of these words.

3 – Adjectives

Adjectives, just like articles, need to “agree” in number and gender with the noun they’re modifying. All adjectives change when it comes to number, so when the noun next to it is in the plural form, the adjective will need an -s at the end (or -es sometimes).

However, gender is a little bit different. In this sense, there are different kinds of adjectives. Whenever an adjective ends in -o in its masculine form, it has a masculine and a feminine form. For example: blanco / blanca (“white” ). This is the most common type of adjective.

Some other adjectives, however, don’t change. These are all adjectives that end in -e, in consonants, or some trickier ones to see, in -ista. Here are some examples: grande (“big” ), gris (“gray” ), and realista (“realistic” ).

There are some exceptions to Spanish gender rules for adjectives ending in consonants, which are the following endings: -or, -ón, -ol, -án, -ín, and -és. For example: alemán / alemana (“German” ) and francés / francesa (“French” ).

For more information, you might want to check out our article on adjectives. You might also be interested in this list of adjectives that describe personalities.

2. How to Make a Good Guess on the Gender of a Word

Let’s focus on nouns properly this time. How do you know if a Spanish word is masculine or feminine?

As we’ve mentioned, nouns dictate the gender of everything that surrounds them, so we need to know what gender a noun is before we know what article or adjective we want to use next to it.

Something that you should always remember is that when talking about a group of people or animals that includes both males and females, we always use the masculine form of the noun. For example:

Tengo cuatro perros: dos machos y dos hembras.
“I have four dogs: two males and two females.”

  • Words that end in -o or -a

There are two things that you need to keep in mind to know if a word is feminine or masculine.

The first thing is that words that end in -o are most likely masculine. Examples: un zapato (“a shoe” ) and un vaso (“a glass” ).

The second thing is that words that end in -a are most likely feminine. Examples: una taza (“a cup” ) and una casa (“a house” ).

But of course, there are exceptions to this rule: una mano (“a hand” ), un mapa (“a map” ), un día (“a day” )…There are also words like moto and foto, which are feminine words but aren’t really exceptions, because they actually come from motocicleta (“motorbike” ) and fotografía (“photography” ) respectively.

  • Other masculine words

There are some other exceptions that also follow rules. For example, words that end in -ma are masculine words, such as un problema (“a problem” ) and el alma (“the soul” ).

Other masculine words that don’t end in -o are those that end in -or, such as el color (“the color” ) or el humor (“the humor” ). However, as always, there are exceptions to the exception. A common example of this is la flor, which is a feminine word that means “the flower.”

  • Other feminine words

Words that end in -sión, -ción, -dad or -tad, -tud, or -umbre are always feminine words. Examples: una presión (“a pressure” ), una transformación (“a transformation” ), una cantidad (“a quantity” ), la libertad (“the freedom” ), una solicitud (“a request” ), la servidumbre (“the servitude” ), etc.

  • Other exceptions to gender rules in Spanish

There are some words that have random endings. Thankfully, there aren’t that many, but we should still consider them. For example, un lápiz, which means “a pencil,” has an unusual ending, -z.

3. How to Memorize the Gender of a Word

Man Memorizing Something

When learning a noun, it might be useful to learn it together with its corresponding article, especially when it’s not a typical word with an -o or -a ending.

There are some nouns that refer to animals and people that might have two different forms, such as the example we gave you when we listed the different articles there are in Spanish: niño means “kid,” but depending on whether it ends in -o or -a, it will refer to a boy or a girl respectively.

When it comes to professions, some nouns have the same form whether they’re masculine or feminine, and some change their ending. For example, artista means “artist” and it refers to both men and women. But if you want to talk about the person who delivers your mail, you’ll talk about a cartero or a cartera, depending on his or her gender.

The main Spanish dictionary, Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (DRAE), always indicates the gender of the noun (m. or f.). For example, the world cumpleaños, which means “birthday,” has the letter m. for masculine. In the case of adjectives, it always shows first the masculine form, and then the ending of the feminine form. One example is the adjective rojo, which means “red.” As you can see, it appears as rojo, ja, to show you both endings. If the adjective only has one form, it doesn’t give you any more information.

There are many activities and games you could try to help you memorize the gender of a noun, such as quizzes or flashcards that include an article or an adjective in the correct gender of the nouns you want to learn.

Our vocabulary lists also state what the gender of a noun is. For example, you can see it in this list of the 50 most common nouns in Mexican Spanish, or in this list of the 100 core Spanish words.

4. Animals

When it comes to animals, Spanish can be a little strange, we admit. Some words for animals are masculine, and some are feminine. Others, as mentioned before, can have a different ending—or even be completely different words. Just like with other nouns, it might not always make sense for an animal to be masculine or feminine, but it’s still important.

Before we get started with this, there’s a joke about animals and Spanish genders that might help you understand this whole thing:

A British man and a Spanish man are fishing when the British man sees a fly and says: “Look, un mosca.” The Spanish man corrects him: “No, it’s una mosca.” The British man responds: “Wow, you Spaniards have really good eyesight.”

Obviously, you understand that this is not about eyesight, but of knowing that the words we use to name animals have genders that might not be the same as their actual gender.

Dogs, Cat, Bird, Snake and Mouse

Feminine animals

  • Una cebra (“a zebra” )
  • Una mosca (“a fly” )
  • Una oveja (“a sheep” )
  • Una cabra (“a goat” )
  • Una vaca (“a cow” )
  • Una araña (“a spider” )

Masculine animals

  • Un elefante (“an elephant” )
  • Un caracol (“a snail” )
  • Un loro (“a parrot” )
  • Un pez (“a fish” )
  • Un pavo (“a turkey” )
  • Un pájaro (“a bird” )

Different endings

  • Un perro/una perra (“a dog” )
  • Un gato/una gata (“a cat” )
  • Un cerdo/una cerda (“a pig” )
  • Un león/una leona (“a lion” )
  • Un oso/una osa (“a bear” )

Different words

  • Un caballo (“a horse” ) / una yegua (“a mare” )
  • Un gallo (“a rooster” ) / una gallina (“a hen” )

Two Horses

When talking about an animal that might have different word endings depending on its gender, we normally use the masculine form first if we don’t know the actual gender of the animal.

For a few more examples of animals in Spanish, take a look at this vocabulary list of animal names.

5. How SpanishPod101.com Can Help You Learn More Spanish

We know that learning gender in Spanish isn’t easy, but it’s very important. You must keep in mind that it’s all about getting used to the genders; once you do, you won’t even have to think about them. They’ll just come to you. So give it a chance and you’ll see it’s not that difficult!

At SpanishPod101.com, you’ll find everything you need to learn Spanish. In this article, we mostly talked about nouns, but we’ve also mentioned articles and adjectives, so this could be a good time to read about adverbs too. You might be interested in learning how to get around in Spanish, or maybe you would like to improve your pronunciation.

Did we talk about anything in this article that you’re still uncertain about? Or do you feel much more confident with Spanish noun genders? Let us know in the comments; we look forward to hearing from you!

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How to be Angry in Spanish: 2020 Guide to 20+ Angry Phrases

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Trying to express your feelings is very important, especially if you’re learning a new language. I still remember how frustrating it was when I was trying to express myself in a new language. Sometimes I couldn’t find the words so it was easier just to give up.

Well, that’s why we want to put this article out there for you, even if you’re one of those people who never (or almost never) gets angry. There will be a time when you need to express that you are angry in Spanish.

Learn how to say “angry” in Spanish, how to express your feelings and when, and most importantly, how to spot when someone is being angry in Spanish toward you.

Spanish is a romance language not only because it comes from Latin, but because you can express so many emotions, feelings, and meanings with it—not only with words, but also with gestures, body language, and physical touch.

It’s normal to find a gap between your feelings, how you should express them, and what they can mean. In Spanish, you can express your emotions by learning the local expressions.

Learn the most common Spanish angry phrases with some specific vocabulary and colloquial words with SpanishPod101. You can start expressing yourself no matter your level!

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Table of Contents

  1. How Do You Say “Angry” in Spanish?
  2. Angry Imperatives
  3. Angry Warnings
  4. Angry Blames
  5. How to Tell Someone to Calm Down
  6. Conclusion

1. How Do You Say “Angry” in Spanish?

Negative Feelings

To express that you feel angry in Spanish, you need to know the verb “to be”: Ser or Estar.

These verbs can both be used with adjectives. However, when it comes to expressing your emotions in Spanish, it’s easy—you just need to use the verb estar.

Formula

The verb “to be” in the present tense: Estoy + Adjective.

Examples of the Spanish word for “angry”:

There are a few different words for “angry” in Spanish. The most common ones are:

  • Enojado(-a) (Latin American Spanish)
  • Enfadado(-a)
  • Molesto(-a)

Saying “I am upset” or “I am angry” in Spanish:

  • Estoy enojado(-a).
  • Estoy enfadado(-a).
  • Estoy molesto(-a).

Once you know these, you can start really using the Spanish word for “angry.” In addition, you should know the local angry phrases in Spanish to help you express your emotions.

2. Angry Imperatives

1- ¡Para ya!

Literal Translation:
“Stop it right now!”

Meaning:
You use this phrase when someone is really annoying you, and you’re starting to feel that anger inside of you, running through each inch of your body. To get that person to stop doing what they’re doing, you say ¡Para ya!

Example Situation:
A mom is with her child in the shopping center, and the child is running around and being rambunctious. This is making the mother feel nervous, so she yells ¡Para ya! to tell her child to stop.

Usage in a Sentence:
Por favor Antonio, ¡para ya!
“Please Antonio, stop it right now!”

2- Como quieras.

Literal Translation:
“Whatever.”

Meaning:
This expression is used when you feel angry in Spanish for something and you want to end the conversation.

Couple After an Argument

Example Situation:
Your partner wants to visit his/her parents for the holidays, and wants you to agree with that decision. You, of course, want to visit your own parents, but your partner is getting very angry because he/she wants you to give in. You finally give up and say Como quieras or “whatever,” showing that you cede—but you’re not feeling happy about it.

Usage in a Sentence:
Como quieras, igual a ti te gusta tener siempre la razón.
“Whatever, you like to always be right anyway.”

3- ¿Y qué?

Literal Translation:
“So what?”

Meaning:
This is one of the best angry Spanish sayings to show indifference about something and to tell the other person you don’t really care.

Example Situation:
Someone is judging you for something, so you use this expression to emphasize that you don’t care about their opinions.

Usage in a Sentence:
Sí, tengo 40 años, ¿y qué?
“Yes, I’m 40 years old, so what?”

3. Angry Warnings

1- Estoy hasta los huevos/las narices/el moño.

Literal Translation:
“I am up to my balls/nose/bun.”

Meaning:
This expression is used when you’re very tired or upset about something or with someone. The equivalent in English can be something like “I’ve had enough of my job.”

Example Situation:
If you work in a bar and there’s an angry Spanish man there, you can say Estoy hasta las narices de este tío, or “I’ve had enough of this man.”

Usage in a Sentence:
Estos hasta las narices de mi trabajo.
“I’ve had enough of my job.”

2- Vete a freír espárragos.

Literal Translation:
“Go to fry asparagus.”

Meaning:
This expression is often used to be angry in Spanish because it basically means “go to hell” but more politely, without using bad words.

Example Situation:
If you’re arguing with someone and you want to end the conversation, you send them to fry asparagus.

Usage in a Sentence:
Si no te gusta, vete a freír espárragos.
“If you don’t like it, go to hell.”

3- No me busques porque me encuentras. (Latin American Spanish)

Literal Translation:
“Do not look for me, because you will find me.”

Meaning:
If you want to argue, bring it on.

Example Situation:
You can use this when you encounter someone who wants to argue, even though you don’t want to. So you tell them: No me busques porque me encuentras. In English, this would be like saying “Don’t push your luck.” This is one of the most common angry Spanish phrases in Mexico.

Usage in a Sentence:
No quiero discutir, así que no me busques porque me encuentras.
“I do not want to argue, so don’t push your luck.”

4- Te voy a decir por donde sale el sol. (Latin American Spanish)

Literal Translation:
“I will tell you where the sun rises.”

Meaning:
This expression means “I am angry” in Spanish, and that you need to talk with that person.

Example Situation:
Your partner is late again and you’re not happy about it. Use this phrase to let him/her know you want to talk about it.

Usage in a Sentence:
Esta vez le voy a decir por donde sale el sol.
“This time I will tell her from where the sun rises.”

5- Que te den.

Literal Translation:
“F*ck off.”

Bald Man Shouting at Someone

Meaning:
This is an extremely offensive expression, and it’s used to tell someone to go away when you’re angry with them.

Example Situation:
A mother is arguing with her teenage son about tidying up his room. When her son refuses to do so, the mother punishes him by not allowing him to go out with his friends for a week. He says: Que te den.

Usage in a Sentence:
Si no te gusta que te den.
“If you do not like it, f*ck off.”

6- Estoy que echo chispas.

Literal Translation:
“I am about to give off sparks.”

Meaning:
This expression means that you’re very angry in Spanish. It’s a warning to the other person not to come any closer because you’re about to explode.

Example Situation:
You’re arguing with someone, and another person comes along. You can tell them: Estoy que echo chispas, or “I am about to explode.”

Usage in a Sentence:
No te metas conmigo que estoy que echo chispas.
“Do not come any closer because I am about to explode.”

7- Estoy de una mala uva/leche/hostia.

Literal Translation:
“I am of such a bad grape/milk/communion bread.”

Meaning:
Yes! This is one of the most common Spanish phrases when angry, especially in Spain. However, in Latin American Spanish, you’ll never hear this. This expression means that you’re in a bad mood.

Angry Man in a Dark Room

Example Situation:
This one is used in a variety of everyday situations when you just want to explain yourself to someone.

Usage in a Sentence:
Estoy de una mala leche mi jefe no me ha dejado salir temprano hoy.
“I am in such a bad mood today; my boss did not let me leave early.”

8- Me estoy calentando.

Literal Translation:
“I am getting hot.”

Meaning:
This means “I am angry” in Spanish. The equivalent English translation is something like “You’re getting on my nerves.”

Example Situation:
If you’re arguing with someone and the conversation doesn’t look like it’ll stop anytime soon, you can say Me estoy calentando.

Usage in a Sentence:
Basta ya que me estoy calentando.
“Stop it already, I am getting angry.”

9- El horno no está para bollos.

Literal Translation:
“The oven is not open for buns.”

Meaning:
This expression is used when you’re not in a good mood, and you don’t want to hear anything else that makes the situation worse.

Example Situation:
You’re already angry, and then someone wants to tell you that they’ve lost your favorite book. Well, you can tell them El horno no está para bollos.

Usage in a Sentence:
Acabo de chocar el coche así que no me digas nada que el horno no está para bollos.
“I just crashed the car, so do not tell me anything else.”

10- Te voy a cantar las cuarenta.

Literal Translation:
“I will sing the forty to you.”

Meaning:
Do you need to let someone know you’re angry in Spanish? This expression is the best way to do this. If someone says this to you, you’re in trouble, especially if you’ve done something to upset that person. This phrase is used to initiate a serious talk.

Example Situation:
If you’re talking to someone about how angry you are at someone else, you can use this expression to be angry in Spanish. Mothers also commonly use this phrase with their children when there’s something that needs to be talked about at home.

Usage in a Sentence:

Le voy a cantar las cuarenta a mi hermano.
“I am angry with my brother, I will talk to him.”

Te voy a cantar las cuarenta cuando lleguemos a casa.
“We will talk about it when we get home.”

11- Qué morro/cara tienes.

Literal Translation:
“You have such a big snout/face.”

Meaning:
You can use this expression to say that you’re angry in Spanish. In particular, this is one of the best Spanish phrases for angry people to use if someone is taking advantage of them, someone else, or a situation.

Example Situation:
If your brother is always asking you for favors and he never does anything for you in return, you can say Qué morro tienes.

Usage in a Sentence:
Mi hermano siempre me devuelve el coche sin gasolina, qué morro tiene.
“My brother always brings back my car without fuel, he has such a big snout.”

12- Te estás pasando.

Literal Translation:
“You are going too far now.”

Meaning:
You should stop now because you’re taking the situation too far.

Example Situation:
Sometimes when you’re angry, you may bring other subjects into the conversation or situation. In this case, the other person may say Te estas pasando so you can understand you’re going too far with it.

Usage in a Sentence:
No hay necesidad de hacer ese comentario, te estás pasando.
“There is no need to say that, you are going too far now.”

4. Angry Blames

1- A ti te dejaron caer cuando eras pequeño. (Latin American Spanish)

Literal Translation:
“You were dropped on the floor when you were a kid.”

Meaning:
If you’re talking to someone and you don’t get the messages they’re trying to send, they’ll tell you A ti te dejaron caer cuando eras pequeño. This is basically a way of calling someone dumb.

Example Situation:
This expression can be a subtle way to say “you’re dumb” to someone, especially in Latin American Spanish.

Usage in a Sentence:
¿Cómo que no entiendes lo que pasa? A ti te dejaron caer cuando eras pequeño, ¿verdad?
“What do you mean you don’t get it, are you dumb or what?”

2- Más tonto y no naces.

Literal Translation:
“If you were dumber, you would not have been born.”

Meaning:
This expression is another way to tell someone how dumb they are for not understanding the situation.

Example Situation:
In a situation where an angry Spanish woman is trying to explain herself, if you don’t get it, she’ll give up and say Más tonto y no naces.

Usage in a Sentence:
Estoy de mala leche, ¿no lo entiendes? Es que más tonto y no naces.
“Can you see I am angry? Should I spell it out for you?”

3- No te metas donde no te llaman.

Literal Translation:
“Do not be nosey.”

Meaning:
This expression means not to argue or say anything about a certain situation if it has nothing to do with you.

Tiger in the Shade

Example Situation:
If two people are arguing and you want to say or add something to their conversation, one of them can tell you No te metas donde no te llaman. In other words, “mind your own business.”

Usage in a Sentence:
Estoy hablando con mi madre en privado, no te metas donde no te llaman.
“I’m talking with my mom in private; please, mind your own business.”

4- Te voy a bajar los humos.

Literal Translation:
“Take down the wind of somebody’s sail.”

Meaning:
This expression is used when you’re angry because someone is behaving with superiority. The equivalent in English could be “Do not patronize me.”

Example Situation:
You can use this when you’re with a colleague and they talk to you like she or he is your boss.

Usage in a Sentence:
Baja un poco los humos y deja de gritarme, que tú no eres mi jefe.
“Do not patronize me, you are not my boss.”

5- Me estás buscando las cosquillas.

Literal Translation:
“You are looking for my tickling.”

Meaning:
This means that someone wants to argue with you, and is intentionally doing things to start a fight.

Example Situation:
If your partner is teasing you in order to start a fight, you can tell him/her this.

Usage in a Sentence:
Me estás buscando las cosquillas.
“You are looking for troubles and I won’t laugh.”

Girl Being Scolded by Parent

6- Te voy a poner los puntos sobre las íes.

Literal Translation:
“I will put the dots over the letter ‘i’.”

Meaning:
This expression is very common when you’re letting someone know you’re angry in Spanish. It means that you’re angry, and no matter what their excuse is, they’re going to hear what you have to say.

Example Situation:
Imagine your friend is late and you’ve been waiting for a long time. She or he is on the phone with you, so you make it clear during the call that you have something to say.

Usage in a Sentence:
Siempre me hace lo mismo, le voy a poner los puntos sobre las íes.
“It’s always like that, (s)he will hear what I have to say about it.”

5. How to Tell Someone to Calm Down

Common Feelings

1- Relájate / Cálmate

Literal Translation:
“Relax” or “Calm down”

Meaning:
This word in Spanish is used to tell someone to chill out.

Example Situation:
This word is more informal than saying “calm down” in Spanish. You can use this with your friends and family, because if you use it with other people, it may make the situation worse.

Usage in a Sentence:

Relájate, que te puede dar un infarto.
“Chill out, you may get a heart attack.”

Cálmate, que no es para tanto.
“Calm down, there is no need to be like that.”

2- No pasa nada.

Literal Translation:
“Nothing is happening.”

Meaning:
This expression is used to ease or stop the situation.

Example Situation:
If you’re arguing with someone and that person realizes that they were wrong, you can say No pasa nada, or “It’s okay, no worries!”

Usage in a Sentence:

A: Creo que me pasé con el comentario.
B: ¡No pasa nada!

A: “I think I went too far with my comment.”
B: “It’s nothing, no worries!”

6. Conclusion

It’s very common to want to express our feelings and emotions. The first words we usually learn for this are curse words, but it’s important to learn how to express your anger in Spanish without them. It’s a process, and SpanishPod101 is here to help you learn more about how to express your feelings in Spanish.

Do you feel more confident about expressing your anger in Spanish now? Drop us a comment to let us know, and be sure to continue practicing the phrases in this article (but not too much!). We look forward to hearing from you!

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Día del Trabajo: Celebrating Labor Day in Mexico

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On Labor Day, Mexico both commemorates the events leading up to the implementation of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 and takes a day off from the same-old-same-old of work. In this article, you’ll learn more about the origins of this holiday, how to celebrate Labor Day in Mexico, and some useful vocabulary!

Let’s get started.

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1. What is Labor Day?

A Laborer Carrying Something Heavy

On the Labor Day holiday, Mexico reflects on the history of labor in the country and celebrates the 1917 Constitution that allowed for better workers’ rights.

For many years (particularly in the late nineteenth century), Mexican workers faced the plight of poor working conditions, lower wages than their American counterparts, a lack of respect, and the inability to advance their careers based on skill or merit.

This eventually led to a revolt called the Cananea Strike, which took place in the June of 1906. In this huelga (“strike”), which took place in the mining town of Cananea, Sonora, Mexican workers made several basic demands (such as fair wages and respectful treatment from superiors)—none of which were met before they were forced to continue working. Twenty-three people were killed during the strike, which came under martial law from Arizona Rangers.

In 1907, another strike occurred at the Rio Blanco textile store. Workers complained about poor working conditions and a corrupt system. This led to many more deaths, with the Rio Blanco store being burned and several protesters shot dead or imprisoned by the Mexican Federal troops.

Not long after, the Mexican Revolution took place, and the Mexican Constitution was put into place in 1917. The first official Labor Day celebration was in 1923.

    → Study our Jobs vocabulary list to learn the name of several different occupations in Mexican Spanish!

2. When is Labor Day in Mexico?

A Calendar Page that Shows May 1

Each year, Mexicans celebrate Labor Day on 1 de mayo (“May 1” ) with the rest of the world (except the U.S., which celebrates on the first Monday of September).

3. How Does Mexico Celebrate Labor Day?

A Group of Workers Going on Strike

Because Labor Day is a public holiday, schools and the majority of businesses are closed.

The Labor Day holiday in Mexico is an opportunity for workers to take time off from their empleo (“job” ) and spend time with loved ones. Many people enjoy going out and doing things, such as seeing a movie, eating out at a nice restaurant, or shopping. There are also many parades and similar festivities that people can take part in. In addition, some people put on a manifestación (“demonstration” ) to protest for more workers’ rights or better work conditions.

Depending on when May 1 takes place, there may be an entire Labor Day weekend in Mexico. Of course, this gives workers even more time away from work and with their family or friends. It’s a great opportunity to go on a weekend trip away from home!

On Labor Day, Mexico City, in particular, is likely to be filled with activity, and it’s a great place to find a variety of delicious restaurants and interesting shops. For Mexico City, Labor Day weekend is a good opportunity to help boost the economy. 😉

4. Modern-Day Strikes

In Mexico, strikes still happen pretty frequently.

According to Mexican labor law, employees have every right to go on strike; during a so-called “legal strike,” the business affected isn’t allowed to hire replacement workers or continue business as usual.

However, this same labor law allows the Board to make the call on whether or not a strike is technically happening. In many cases, the Board decides there’s no actual strike and so allows the affected business to continue running with replacement workers.

5. Must-Know Vocabulary for Labor Day in Mexico

A Wallet with Money Sticking Out

Ready to review some of the vocabulary words from this article? Here’s a list of the most important words and phrases for Labor Day in Mexico!

  • Salario — “Salary” [n. masc]
  • Trabajador — “Worker” [n. masc]
  • Día del Trabajo — “Labor Day” [masc]
  • Huelga — “Strike” [n. fem]
  • Trabajo — “Work” [n. masc]
  • Empleo — “Job” [n. masc]
  • Jornada laboral — “Working time” [fem]
  • 1 de mayo — “May 1”
  • Manifestación — “Demonstration” [n. fem]
  • Obrero — “Laborer” [n. masc]

To hear the pronunciation of each word and phrase, and to read them alongside relevant images, be sure to check out our Labor Day in Mexico vocabulary list!

Final Thoughts

We hope you enjoyed learning about Labor Day in Mexico with us, and that you took away some valuable information.

Do you celebrate Labor Day in your country? If so, how do your traditions and history compare to those of Mexico? We look forward to hearing from you in the comments!

If you want to learn even more about Mexican culture and the Spanish language, you may enjoy the following pages on SpanishPod101.com:

This is just the tip of the iceberg. For even more fantastic Spanish-learning content, create your free lifetime account on SpanishPod101.com today. You can also upgrade to our Premium or Premium PLUS plans, which give you access to exclusive content and features to learn Spanish faster!

Happy Labor Day, and good luck learning! 🙂

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Life Event Messages: Learn Happy Birthday in Spanish & More

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We love sharing life event messages on our social media and through instant messages, right? Life events are very significant moments, and many of them are like rituals to us. Take birthdays, weddings, and funerals for example.

If you’re learning Spanish and want to say happy birthday in Spanish to your loved ones, or perhaps share your best wishes for the holidays in Spanish with your friends, it’s important to know what to say, when to say it, and how to say it.

These types of Spanish greetings and well-wishes for important occasions are normally language-specific words which shouldn’t be literally translated. So when you’re trying to say Merry Christmas in Spanish and Happy New Year in Spanish, instead of translating them, you should learn the proper way to do so. This will ensure that you say the right thing at the right time, and avoid confusion.

Let’s learn the best Spanish congratulations and best wishes for any life event, and how to use them.

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Table of Contents

  1. How Do You Say Happy Birthday in Spanish?
  2. Best Wishes & Greetings in Spanish for the Holidays
  3. Spanish Congratulations: Weddings & Engagements
  4. Spanish Congratulations: Pregnancy, Baby Shower, and New Baby
  5. Congratulations in Spanish for Graduations
  6. Spanish Congratulations Phrases for Promotions & New Jobs
  7. Spanish Congratulations Messages for Retirement
  8. Condolences in Spanish: Death & Funerals
  9. What to Say About Bad News
  10. What to Say When Someone’s Injured or Sick
  11. Conclusion

1. How Do You Say Happy Birthday in Spanish?

Happy Birthday

We all want to celebrate, congratulate, and be congratulated on our special day. Celebrations are a big part of any Spanish-speaking country. We celebrate everything, yes everything! That’s why we have so many bank holidays, even for saint days.

Send the perfect message on your friend’s birthday and make them feel special!

Celebrating Birthday

Feliz cumpleaños, which means Happy Birthday in Spanish, is the most common way to congratulate them right and simple. In Spain, we give two kisses (one on each cheek) or a hug, but in some Latin American countries, one kiss is enough.

If you don’t get to see them, text them! A quick message on their social media will make their day. Let’s answer the question “How do you say Happy Birthday in Spanish?” with some examples you can use:

  • ¡Que todos tus deseos se hagan realidad!
    “May all your wishes come true!”
  • ¡Felicidades!
    “Congratulations!”
  • ¡Que cumplas muchos años más!
    “I hope you enjoy many more years!”
  • ¡Que tengas un maravilloso día!
    “Have a wonderful day!”
  • ¡Mis mejores deseos en este día tan especial para ti!
    “I wish you all the best on your special day!”
  • ¡Enhorabuena!
    “Congratulations!”

And there are some special phrases, such as:

  • Si es tu cumpleaños, ¿por qué el regalo lo tengo yo? Gracias por regalarme otro año de vida a tu lado.
    “If it is your birthday, why do I have your present? Thanks for giving me another year next to you.”
  • Que el nuevo año que empiezas esté tan lleno de alegría y felicidad como te deseo. ¡Que cumplas muchos más!
    “I hope this new year can be as full of joy and happiness as I wish you. I hope you have much more!”

2. Best Wishes & Greetings in Spanish for the Holidays

Basic Questions

The holiday season is the most exciting time for Spanish people. Why? Because it’s when we all get to share quality time with our families. Although there may be many ways to say Merry Christmas in English, there’s one phrase in Spanish that encapsulates the meaning.

¡Felices fiestas! literally means “Happy holidays” in Spanish, and is the most common way to give best wishes for the holidays in Spanish.

Receiving A Christmas Card

As you may know by now, Spanish-speaking countries are all about parties, which explains the phrase Felices Fiestas.

Feliz Navidad is another way to say “Merry Christmas,” and may be the best translation of it.

You should reply: Igualmente, which means “You too.”

If you want to add more love and affection to your Merry Christmas in Spanish, you should say con mucho cariño, meaning “with all my love.”

New Year’s Eve and New Year’s Day are also part of the holiday season in Spain. Although “happy holidays” in Spanish is Felices Fiestas, Happy New Year in Spanish is expressed in many different ways.

  • ¡Feliz año nuevo!
    “Happy New Year!”
  • ¡Feliz año!
    “Happy year!”

New Year's Eve Party

You can send your best wishes for the holidays in Spanish for the new year by saying something like: Que tengas un próspero año nuevo, or “I hope you have a prosperous new year.”

This message is the best choice if you want to wish a Happy New Year in Spanish on a Christmas card, send a text message, or email it to someone special.

  • Feliz próspero año nuevo.
    “Happy prosperous new year.”
  • Que el próximo año esté lleno de bendiciones.
    “May next year be full of blessings.”
  • Año nuevo, vida nueva.
    “New year, new life.”

Other important days in Spanish-speaking countries are Mother’s Day and Father’s Day. We all want to tell our parents how important they are and how much they mean to us, making it important to know how to wish them a happy Mother’s Day in Spanish (or Father’s Day).

If you have a Spanish partner, it’s possible that you have a mother-in-law or father-in-law who cares about you a lot. This is the perfect chance to show them your love and wish them a Happy Mother’s Day in Spanish.

Kissing Mother in Mother's Day

  • ¡Feliz día de la madre!
    “Happy Mother’s Day!”
  • ¡Feliz día del padre!
    “Happy Father’s Day”
  • Gracias por todo lo que has hecho.
    “Thanks for all you’ve done for me.”
  • Estoy agradecido/agradecida por todo tu trabajo.
    “I’m thankful for all your work.”
  • Eres la mejor mamá del mundo.
    “You’re the best mom in the world.”
  • Eres el mejor padre del mundo.
    “You’re the best dad in the world.”
  • Mamá, te amo or Te quiero mamá.
    “I love you, mom.”

These are some messages you can send to wish a Happy Mother’s Day in Spanish on their social media, in a postcard, or in person.

3. Spanish Congratulations: Weddings & Engagements

Marriage Proposal

A wedding is a special day that most people want to share with their family and friends with a big party. Perhaps this year you’re lucky enough to be invited to one in a Spanish-speaking country!

Perfect! Learn how to express all your best wishes in Spanish here.

What do you write in a Spanish wedding card? How can you express your happiness for the couple? Whether you want to congratulate the married couple, have received an invitation to a wedding, want to add a message to your gift card, or just want to leave your best wishes in Spanish on their wedding book, these are useful phrases you can use.

If you’re lucky, you may get to give a public speech on this special day. Surprise your audience with your Spanish skills. Here’s how:

  • Espero que seáis muy felices.
    “I wish you both happiness.”
  • ¡Felicidades por esta nueva etapa!
    “Congratulations on your new life together!”
  • ¡Felicidades a los futuros esposos!
    “Congratulations to the future spouses!”
  • ¡Felicidades a los novios!
    “Congratulations to the bride and the groom!”

Celebrating Newlyweds

If the couple has been married for a very long time and you want to congratulate them for all the time they‘ve been together, this is how:

  • ¡Felicidades por sus bodas de plata!
    “Congratulations on your silver wedding anniversary.”
  • Felicidades por sus bodas de oro.
    “Congratulations on your golden wedding anniversary.”
  • Felicidades por sus bodas de diamante.
    “Congratulations on your diamond wedding anniversary.”

4. Spanish Congratulations: Pregnancy, Baby Shower, and New Baby

New life! A new member of the family has arrived, and you want to take the time to congratulate the new parents. Here are some Spanish greetings and well-wishes for important occasions like these.

Newborn in Mother's Arms

  • ¡Felicidades por el nuevo integrante de la familia!
    “Congratulations on the new arrival in your family.”
  • ¡Felicidades por el nacimiento de su niño/niña!
    “Congratulations on the arrival of your boy/girl.”
  • Nos alegra mucho saber que ya ha nacido.
    “We are so happy to hear he/she has already been born.”
  • Enhorabuena.
    “Congratulations.”

5. Congratulations in Spanish for Graduations

Hats in Graduation Day

We all want to share with others what we accomplish in life. Tell the new graduates how happy you are for their academic accomplishment in Spanish. And why not surprise them with your Spanish skills while you’re at it!

  • ¡Felicidades por tu graduación!
    “Congratulations on your graduation.”
  • ¡Buen trabajo!
    “Well done.” or “Good job.”
  • ¡Felicidades por tus buenas calificaciones!
    “Congratulations on your good grades.”
  • ¡Felicidades por tu master!
    “Congratulations on getting your Master’s degree.”
  • ¡Felicidades por entrar en la universidad!
    “Well done on getting into the university.”
  • ¡Felicidades por pasar el examen!
    “Congratulations on passing your exam.”

6. Spanish Congratulations Phrases for Promotions & New Jobs

Two Men Shaking Hands

Did someone just share their success? A new job, moving to a new country, or something else? Celebrate with them by saying something in Spanish. Here’s how:

  • ¡Felicidades! or Enhorabuena.
    “Congratulations.”
  • ¡Bien hecho!
    “Well done!”
  • Sabíamos que lo lograrías.
    “We knew you would get it.”
  • Estamos orgullosos de ti.
    “We are so proud of you.”
  • ¡Felicidades por tu nuevo empleo!
    “Congratulations on your new job!”
  • ¡Felicidades por tu ascenso!
    “Congratulations on the promotion!”
  • ¡Mucha suerte en tu nueva etapa!
    “Best of luck on your next step.”
  • ¡Suerte en tu primer día de trabajo!
    “Good luck on your first day of work!”

7. Spanish Congratulations Messages for Retirement

Age

Now the fun begins: Your father-in-law or mother-in-law has retired, and you want to share your best wishes in Spanish. They may come to your place more often now, so keep your Spanish skills sharp with these Spanish greetings and well-wishes for important occasions such as this one.

  • Enhorabuena, ahora empieza la diversión.
    “Congratulations, now the fun begins.”
  • Mis mejores deseos en la nueva etapa de tu vida.
    “Best wishes on your new chapter in life.”
  • Deseándote a ti y a tu familia lo mejor en la nueva etapa de vida. Que disfrutes del tiempo extra que pasarás con ellos.
    “Wishing you and your family the best on your new chapter in your life. I hope you enjoy spending more time with them.”

8. Condolences in Spanish: Death & Funerals

We all want to express our sympathy when someone has lost a loved one. Sometimes it’s hard to express, especially if it’s not in your native language.

Funeral Talk in Cementery

Here are some Spanish phrases of condolences to help you:

  • Lo siento mucho.
    “I am sorry to hear that.”
  • Estamos con ustedes.
    “We are with you.”
  • Mis condolencias para la familia.
    “I offer my condolences to your family.”
  • Mi más sentido pésame.
    “My deepest condolences.”
  • Que descanse en paz or Descanse en paz.
    “Rest in peace.”

9. What to Say About Bad News

What should you say when you receive bad news? We all have difficult moments in life, and words may not always bring a solution. But when we share them with meaning and from the heart, they can go a long ways toward comforting someone.

Receiving Bad News by the Phone

Here are some phrases that you can use to express your feelings in Spanish when someone is having a bad day!

  • Lo siento mucho.
    “I’m sorry to hear that.”
  • Estoy contigo.
    “I’m here for you.”
  • Te envío un beso y un abrazo.
    “Sending you all my love.”
  • Cuenta conmigo.
    “You can lean on me.”
  • Cuidate mucho.
    “Take care of yourself.”

10. What to Say When Someone’s Injured or Sick

What if you have a Spanish-speaking friend or colleague who’s sick, and you want to cheer them up?

Sick with Fever

Wish them a quick recovery, and ask them to get well soon in Spanish:

  • Recupérate pronto.
    “Wishing you a speedy recovery.”
  • ¡Que te mejores!
    “Get well!”
  • Alíviate pronto.
    “I hope you get well soon.”
  • Espero que te sientas mejor.
    “I hope you feel better soon.”

11. Conclusion

Apart from receiving compliments for those significant life events, we should all learn how to thank them for their kind words in Spanish. We can help you learn more Spanish at SpanishPod101.

  • Gracias.
    “Thank you.”
  • Se agradece.
    “It’s appreciated.”
  • Mil gracias.
    “Many thanks.”
  • No sé cómo podría agradecértelo.
    “I don’t know how to thank you.”
  • Estamos muy agradecidos.
    “We are very grateful.”
  • Qué amable de su parte.
    “Very kind of you.”
  • Gracias desde el fondo de mi corazón.
    “Thanks from the bottom of my heart.”

“How do you say happy birthday in Spanish?” Well, with this simple list, now you know! Learn more about life event messages in Spanish and much more at SpanishPod101.

Before you go, let us know in the comments if there are any Spanish life events and life event messages you want to know about! We look forward to hearing from you, and will help out the best we can!

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Semana Santa: Celebrating Holy Week in Spain

Semana Santa, or Holy Week in Spain, is a Christian holiday season widely celebrated throughout the country. This holiday has a long history in Spain, and traditions today are a mix of the old and new.

In this article, you’ll learn what the most important holy days of this week represent, how the Spanish celebrate Holy Week as a whole, and more facts about Spanish Holy Week.

Let’s get started!

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1. What is Holy Week?

In Spain, Holy Week is a major celebration period that starts on Palm Sunday and ends the day before Easter. Thus, this week is composed of six very important days for Christian Catholics in the country. However, four of these days tend to be more fervently celebrated than the others:

  • Palm Sunday (Domingo de Ramos). This holy day is observed in celebration of Jesus’ arrival into Jerusalem a week before his Resurrection from the dead (Easter).
  • Holy Wednesday (Miercoles Santo). People observe this holy day in commemoration of Judas’ betrayal of Jesus.
  • Good Friday (Viernes Santo). On this holy day, people in Spain commemorate the passion and death of Jesus.
  • Easter Sunday (Domingo de Pascua). This is the day on which Jesus is said to have been resurrected.

Later in this article, we’ll go over what Holy Week traditions in Spain look like for each of these holy days.

2. When is Holy Week in Spain?

A Silhouette of a Man Kneeling and Praying in Front of a Cross

The start and end dates for Holy Week vary from year to year. For your convenience, here’s a table of this holiday’s start and end dates for the next ten years.

Start Date End Date
2020 April 5 April 11
2021 March 28 April 3
2022 April 10 April 16
2023 April 2 April 8
2024 March 24 March 30
2025 April 13 April 19
2026 March 29 April 4
2027 March 21 March 27
2028 April 9 April 15
2029 March 25 March 31

3. How is Holy Week Celebrated in Spain?

A Large Easter Sunday Meal

The Four Most Important Days and Traditions

As mentioned earlier, there are four days during the week which are considered the most important. Thus, most of the major celebrations take place on these days.

On Palm Sunday, people bring palm or olive branches to the church to be blessed in commemoration of Jesus’ arrival in Jerusalem. Because Holy Wednesday commemorates Judas’ betrayal of Jesus, citizens in some parts of Spain wear black robes and hoods, carrying percussion instruments to fill the day and night with the sound of drums. On Good Friday, the day of Jesus’ passion and death, people put on representations of the Vía Crucis, or “Stations of the Cross.” Further, meat consumption is forbidden on this day.

The most important of these holy days is that of Easter, or Pascua. In some regions of Spain, people paint colorful eggs, while others perform more traditional rituals such as burning straw dolls.

Food and Cuisine for Holy Week

For Holy Week in Spain, traditions often involve food. The traditional Holy Week cuisine is known for its austerity, though there are a few common dishes such as garlic soup or salted cod. Cod is used to make croquettes, doughnuts, and fritters; another popular dessert is the Easter cake.

Holy Week Parades and Processions

Perhaps the most spectacular celebrations for Holy Week take place in southern Spain. This is where massive, well-funded parades are put on by the brotherhoods for all to see. If you happen to watch one of these parades, the big conical-shaped hats may get your attention right away. These are called capirotes, and they originated in the Inquisition. The Catholic Church used to put a similar type of hat on the condemned during the Middle Ages, except it had paintings on it that denoted a person’s crime or punishment.

Another thing you can expect to see is a Spanish Holy Week procession. During such a procession, Nazarenes, bearers, and penitents go forth. The Nazarenes are believers who wear robes that denote the color of their brotherhood, the bearers are those who carry the heavy figures on their shoulders and neck, and the penitents are believers who mortify themselves in some way in order to remove themselves from guilt or to ask favor.

4. Good Luck

For Holy Week, Spain has a fascinating trick for getting good luck. Do you know what it is?

Wear something new! This is a very well-known custom, and there’s even a proverb that says: “On Palm Sunday, he who does not wear something new, does not have hands.”

It doesn’t matter so much what type of clothing you wear, as long as it’s new.

5. Essential Holy Week Vocabulary

A Procession for Holy Week

Ready to review some of the vocabulary words from this article? Here’s a list of the most important Spanish words and phrases for Holy Week!

  • Viernes Santo — “Good Friday”
  • Pascua — “Easter”
  • Semana Santa — “Holy Week”
  • Procesión — “Procession”
  • Vía Crucis — “Stations of the Cross”
  • Resurrección — “Resurrection”
  • Domingo de Ramos — “Palm Sunday”
  • Jueves Santo — “Holy Thursday”
  • Sábado Santo — “Holy Saturday”
  • Domingo de Pascua — “Easter Sunday”
  • Crucifixión — “Crucifixion”
  • Palmón — “Palm”

To hear the pronunciation of each word, and to read them alongside relevant images, be sure to check out our Spanish Holy Week vocabulary list!

Final Thoughts

We hope you enjoyed learning about Spain’s Holy Week with us, and that you took away some valuable cultural information.

Do you celebrate Holy Week in your country? If so, are celebrations similar or quite different from those in Spain? We look forward to hearing from you in the comments!

If you’re fascinated with Spanish culture and just can’t get enough, we recommend that you check out the following pages on SpanishPod101.com:

That should be enough to quench your thirst for cultural knowledge for a little while, but for even more great learning resources, create your free lifetime account today. SpanishPod101.com has tons of fun and effective lessons for learners at every level, so there’s something for everyone.

We look forward to having you! 🙂

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Día de la Bandera: Celebrating Mexican Flag Day

D�a de la Bandera: Celebrating Mexican Flag Day

On Mexican Flag Day (Dia de la Bandera), the people of Mexico celebrate their country’s flag and the aspects of independence it depicts. This is a significant holiday in Mexico, and one draped in colorful symbolism.

In this article, you’ll learn about National Flag Day, Mexico’s gradual victory toward independence from Spain, and more fun facts about the Flag of Mexico. Let’s get started!

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1. What is National Flag’s Day in Mexico?

In Mexico, National Flag Day is a day set aside to honor the Mexican Flag. This holiday has its origins in 1935, when a Bank of Mexico employee (Benito Ramírez) set up a special honor guard to celebrate the Flag of Mexico. Five years later, in 1940, National Flag’s Day became an official holiday at the bidding of then-President Lázaro Cárdenas.

In addition to the Flag of Mexico itself, people commemorate the events leading up to Mexico’s independence from Spain and the Plan of Three Guarantees that came along with this independence. The Mexican Flag is central to these themes, with each of its three colors representing one of the guarantees and other aspects of Mexico’s freedom. (We’ll go more into detail about Mexico’s flag later!)

2. Mexican Flag Day’s Date

Mexican Flag Waving in the Air

Each year, Mexicans honor their country’s flag on February 24, which is the date in 1821 that the Iguala Plan came into effect and the end of the War of Independence was signed.

3. The Mexican Flag Day Celebration

People Holding Hands in Unity

In Mexico, Flag Day celebrations aren’t very elaborate, and because this is not a public holiday, many people still need to go to work and school on this day. While there aren’t many Mexican Flag Day activities, some people are still able to enjoy watching the military raise a giant Mexican Flag in celebration.

If you happen to be in the country on February 24, Mexican Flag Day, expect to see the streets and buildings decorated with a sea of Mexican Flag colors.

    → Interested in learning more about celebrations and festivities in Spanish-speaking countries? Check out this lesson by SpanishPod101!

4. The Mexican Flag – Colors and Symbolism

As you probably know, the Mexican Flag colors are green, white, and red. Do you know what they stand for, though?

Well, when the flag was first created, the meanings were a little bit different than they are today.

1821 Today
Green (Verde) Independence from Spain Hope (Esperanza)
White (Blanco) Catholicism Purity (Pureza)
Red (Rojo) Unity and Equality Blood (Sangre)

The first set of color meanings directly relates to the Three Guarantees mentioned earlier. These guarantees were that Mexico would: be independent of Spain, claim Catholicism as its religion, and live in unity and equality with each other (and with the Spaniards in Mexico).

Curious about the design? The Mexican Flag’s design features an eagle standing on top of a cactus while eating a snake. It might sound pretty weird, but it’s based on a story about Aztecs who stumbled upon a similar scene and, believing it to be a sign from the gods, decided to build their empire in that very spot.

5. Must-Know Vocabulary for Dia de la Bandera

Mexico’s National Coat of Arms

Ready to review some of the vocabulary words from this article? Here’s a list of the most important words for Mexican Flag Day!

  • Sangre — “Blood”
  • Águila — “Eagle”
  • Día de la Bandera — “National Flag’s Day”
  • Verde — “Green”
  • Blanco — “White”
  • Rojo — “Red”
  • Esperanza — “Hope”
  • Bandera — “Flag”
  • Escudo de armas — “National coat of arms”
  • Unidad — “Unity”
  • Símbolo — “Symbol”

To hear each of these vocabulary words pronounced, and to read them alongside relevant images, be sure to check out our Mexican National Flag’s Day vocabulary list!

Final Thoughts

We hope you enjoyed learning about Dia de la Bandera with us, and that you learned something new today. What does Flag Day look like in your country? What does your country’s flag mean? Tell us about it in the comments!

Mexican culture is colorful and unique. If you’re interested in learning even more about it, check out the following pages on SpanishPod101.com:

Whatever your reasons for developing an interest in Mexican culture or the Spanish language, know that SpanishPod101.com is the best way to expand your knowledge and improve your skills. With tons of fun lessons for beginners, intermediate learners, and more advanced students, there’s something for everyone!

Create your free lifetime account today, and start learning Spanish like never before.

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Spanish Conjunctions Guide: Link Your Thoughts Together

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Conjunctions in Spanish are a crucial part of learning Spanish. They allow you to connect your thoughts, make comparisons, and put sentences together.

Clarity is very important when you’re learning a new language. Not only because the other person will understand what you’re saying, but also because it will build your confidence.

Do you remember when you first decided to learn Spanish? You may still remember how frustrating it was to try having a fluid conversation with a native speaker. You were trying to find the small words to express yourself properly.

We all find ourselves saying: “I have a brother. I have a sister. I have a mother. I do not have a father.”

Well, this is what Spanish conjunctions will do for you. Learning Spanish conjunctions will help you string sentences together: “I have a brother and a sister and a mother, but I do not have a father.”

In this article, you’ll find our Spanish conjunctions list that will show you what small Spanish conjunction words can do for you.

Your thoughts will come out nicely, you’ll be easily understood, and your confidence will increase much faster since you’ll sound like, at the least, an upper-intermediate Spanish learner.

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Table of Contents

  1. Spanish Conjunctions Review: What are Spanish Conjunctions?
  2. Spanish Conjunctions to Correlate Similar Thoughts
  3. Spanish Conjunctions to Express Condition
  4. Spanish Conjunctions to Express Cause
  5. Spanish Conjunctions to Express Opposition
  6. Spanish Adverbial Conjunctions
  7. Spanish Conjunctions that Offer Alternatives
  8. Spanish Subordinating Conjunctions
  9. Spanish Conjunctions that Allow You to Give Reasons
  10. Spanish Subjunctive Conjunctions
  11. Conclusion

1. Spanish Conjunctions Review: What are Spanish Conjunctions?

The first thing we do when trying to learn a new language is to put simple sentences together: “I want a coffee.” Now, it’s time for you to learn how to put these simple sentences together: “I want a coffee and a muffin,” or “I like muffins, but I prefer a cookie.” That’s what Spanish conjunctions are, and how they can help you.

Coffee and Pastries

A conjunction in Spanish is a word that helps you create relationships between words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.

Keep in mind that some conjunctions in Spanish may not have meaning by themselves. They have a different meaning in different contexts, which is why it’s important to know what their functions are and how to use them. Throughout this article, we’ll go over some Spanish conjunctions rules to give you a better idea about their use.

So let’s see some of them in our Spanish conjunctions list!

2. Spanish Conjunctions to Correlate Similar Thoughts

This is the most important—and easy—conjunction in Spanish: y, meaning “and.” It allows you to add more than one sentence together.

We actually overdo this Spanish conjunction quite often. Take a look at what we mean:

  • Me gusta la comida española y la italiana y la francesa y la griega.
    “I like Spanish food and Italian food and French food and Greek food.”

Selection of Different Type of Foods

  • Santiago pidió de comer y pagó toda la cuenta.
    “Santiago ordered the food and paid the whole bill.”
  • El policía me pidió el carné, anotó mis datos y me puso una multa.
    “The police officer asked for my licence, wrote down my information, and I got a fine.”

This use of this Spanish conjunction has an exception where you have to use e instead of y. They mean exactly the same thing, but if your next word or sentence starts with the vowel –i-, you have to use e instead of y.

Why? Well, –i– and –y– in Spanish sound the same, so you have to use –e– to emphasize that you’re adding more information. Let’s see how:

  • María es guapa e interesante.
    “Maria is beautiful and interesting.”
  • Daniel e Isabela se acaban de conocer.
    “Daniel and Isabela just met each other.”

However, if the next word starts with –h-, although this letter has no sound in Spanish, you can use –y-.

  • He comprado agua y hielo.
    “I bought water and ice.”
  • El puente es de acero y hierro.
    “The bridge is from steel and iron.”

3. Spanish Conjunctions to Express Condition

Sentence Patterns

This is our English-Spanish conjunctions list for conjunctions that are used to express a condition. When you use these Spanish conjunctions, you’re expressing a specific condition that must be met for the rest of the sentence to be true or possible.

  • Si: “If”

Si vas a ir al supermercado, compra leche.
“If you are going to the supermarket, buy milk.”

  • En caso de que: “If”; “in case of”

This Spanish conjunction has the same meaning as the English word “if,” but in Spanish it’s used at the beginning of the sentence.

En caso de que decidas venir a la fiesta, compra más cervezas.
“If you decide to come to the party, buy more beers.”

  • Como: “If”

We included this word to our conjunctions in Spanish list because in English, you can just use “if,” but in Spanish this word has a different meaning that the phrase above. You use como if you want to warn someone about something. Let’s see how:

Como no vengas a casa temprano, no sales mañana otra vez.
“If you don’t come home early, you won’t go out again tomorrow.”

  • Siempre que: “If”; “provided”

Siempre que seas honrado todo te saldrá bien.
“Provided you are honest, everything will be fine.”

4. Spanish Conjunctions to Express Cause

Improve Listening

These should be on your Spanish conjunctions worksheets because you need them to express the results and consequences of what you’ve said or done.

  • Así que: “So”

Acabo de llegar a casa así que te llamo luego.
“I have just arrived home, so I will call you back later.”

  • Luego: “So”

This Spanish conjunction may mean the same as Así que, but it’s less common. You’ll see it more in books or literary articles than in speech.

No tengo efectivo, luego no podré comprarme un café.
“I do not have cash on me, so I can’t buy myself a coffee.”

  • De modo que: “So”; “so that”

Salgamos de casa ya, de modo que lleguemos temprano al cine.
“Let’s leave home now so we can arrive early for the movie.”

5. Spanish Conjunctions to Express Opposition

Improve Listening Part 2

This conjunction list will help you express contrast.

  • Pero: “But”

Voy a ir a tu fiesta pero primero tengo que ir a casa.
“I am going to your party, but I have to go home first.”

  • Aunque: “Although”; “even though”

Seguiré buscando trabajo aunque sea difícil
“I will carry on looking for a job, even though it’s still difficult.”

  • Sin embargo: “However”

Me gusta el helado, sin embargo prefiero el yogur cuando estoy en casa.
“I like ice cream; however, I prefer yogurt when I am home.”

  • No obstante: “However”; “nevertheless”

Nos lo pasamos bien en la primera cita, no obstante, no la volví a ver.
“We had a good time on our first date; however, I didn’t see her again.”

  • Por lo demás: “Otherwise”; “apart from that”

No creo que la conclusión esté bien; por lo demás, el ensayo está muy bien.
“I don’t think the conclusion was good; apart from the conclusion, the essay is fine.”

  • Excepto: “Except for”

Me gustan todas las verduras excepto la patatas.
“I like all vegetables except for potatoes.”

6. Spanish Adverbial Conjunctions

Spanish adverbial conjunctions are also known as conjunctive adverbs. They’re adverbs with the characteristics and functions of conjunctions. They join two or more words together, and are used when you want to express the result, purpose, or consequences of something.

Adverbial conjunctions show continuity, joined under casual or situational dependence. The most-used adverbial conjunctions in Spanish are:

  • Cuando: “When”; “if”; “as”; “whenever”

Toda la comida estaba preparada cuando tú llegaste.
“All the food was prepared when you arrived.”

  • Mientras: “While”

Puedes ir comprando palomitas mientras compro las entradas.
“You can buy the popcorn while I’m buying the tickets.”

  • Donde: “Where”

Vivo muy cerca de donde tú trabajas.
“I live pretty close to where you work.”

  • Como: “As”; “like”

Tengo el pelo rizado como tu madre.
“I have curly hair just like your mom.”

7. Spanish Conjunctions that Offer Alternatives

These conjunctions in Spanish help you choose between different alternatives.

  • O: “Or”

¿Quieres café o té?
“Would you like tea or coffee?”

  • U: “Or”

U has the same function that o does, but it’s used whenever the next word starts with –o. This is just like the –e to –y rule from earlier in this article. They sound the same, so you have to change the Spanish conjunction to hear the alternative given.

¿Quieres ir a California u Orlando?
“Do you want to go to California or to Orlando?”

California Car's Plate

¿A qué hora comienza la película, siete u ocho?
“What time does the movie start, at seven or eight?”

8. Spanish Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions in Spanish allow you to join an independent sentence with a dependent sentence.

A dependent sentence alone wouldn’t make any sense without the independent one, thus these Spanish subordinating conjunctions will help you make sense of the whole sentence, situation, or event.

  • Porque: “Because”

No voy a ir al gimnasio porque me siento muy enferma.
“I am not going to the gym because I am not feeling well.”

  • Pues: “Since”

Deberíamos ir a cine el miércoles, pues creo que es más barato que el sábado.
“We should go to the movies on Wednesday since I think it’s cheaper than Saturday.”

  • Ya que: “Since”; “seeing that”

Voy a ir al mercadillo, ya que tengo que comprar verduras.
“I am going to the street market, since I have to buy vegetables.”

There are other synonyms with the same use as the ones above: dado que, por cuanto, a causa de que, por lo cual… They would be the same translations in English: “because,” “therefore,” “since…”

9. Spanish Conjunctions that Allow You to Give Reasons

This type of conjunction in Spanish allows you to give a reason for why something happens the way it does.

These useful Spanish conjunctions can help you answer the question ¿Por qué?, or “Why?” As for the first one on the list, you’ll simply use the two words together without the accent.

  • Porque: “Because”

No voy a la fiesta porque tengo que trabajar mañana en la mañana.
“I am not going to the party because I am working tomorrow morning.”

  • Ya que; puesto que; en vista de que: “Since”; “because”

No me he comprado un coche ya que no tengo dinero.
“I did not buy myself a car because I do not have any money.”

No vamos a ir al parque puesto que está lloviendo.
“We are not going to the park because it is raining.”

En vista de que no quieres comer nada, no te daré el helado tampoco.
“Since you haven’t eaten anything, I won’t give you ice cream either.”

Ice Cream

  • Pues: “Because”; “since”; “for”

Hemos decidido vender el coche, pues nos vamos a Inglaterra.
“We have decided to sell the car because we are going to England.”

  • Como: “Since”

Es mejor que cambies de profesión, como has pensado empezar de nuevo.
“It’s better to change your profession since you’ve thought to start again.”

10. Spanish Subjunctive Conjunctions

With some Spanish conjunctions, the subjunctive is needed to express a hypothetical uncertainty as to whether an action or event will take place, or whether or not a situation will happen.

  • A menos que: “Unless”

El gato se quedará dormido a menos que el ratón salga de su escondite.
“The cat will fall asleep unless the mouse gets out of its hideaway.”

  • En caso (de) que: “In case”

Voy a dejar las llaves del coche en caso de que quieras usarlo.
“I am going to leave the car keys in case you want to use them.”

  • Antes de que: “Before”

Antes de que salgas corriendo, déjame la comida preparada.
“Before you run out, leave the food ready for me.”

  • Con tal de que: “So that”

Limpié la casa con tal de que no discutiéramos.
“I cleaned the house so that we wouldn’t fight.”

  • Para que: “So that”

Voy a ir a supermercado para que tengas pan para mañana.
“I am going to the supermarket so that you have bread for tomorrow.”

  • Sin que: “Without”

Habían pasado tres semanas sin que Juan viera a Silvia.
“It had been three weeks without Juan seeing Silvia.”

11. Conclusion

Do you want to sound like a confident Spanish speaker? After this article, and lots of practice with important Spanish conjunctions, you will! These basic Spanish conjunctions will help you link different parts of sentences together. You can use them to include ideas in your sentences, or to exclude them. You have to be very clear about that; after this post, you get it, right?

Here at SpanishPod101, you can find many resources, forums, and even a Spanish conjunctions worksheet for extra Spanish conjunctions practice to help you learn at your own speed. Why don’t you give it a try? You lose nothing and gain more knowledge about our Spanish conjunctions list.

Happy learning!

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