Vocabulary (Review)

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Lesson Transcript

Beatriz: Buen día, soy Beatriz.
Joseph: Soy Joseph. “The Present Tense – Recap”.
Beatriz: Señoras y señores, muy bienvenidos a otra lección de SpanishPod101.
Joseph: Beatriz and Joseph are back again for another episode of the Verb Conjugation Series. Lección diez.
Beatriz: La décima lección.
Joseph: Lesson 10. Beatriz, gusto de verte.
Beatriz: Para mi también, el gusto es mío, compañero.
Joseph: Gracias, compañera. For the last eight lessons, we’ve looked at the basics of the study of verbs in Spanish and at seven different ways that this tense can be and is applied in spoken Spanish.
Beatriz: Yes, the Present Tense is used so often.

Lesson focus

Joseph: We’ve also seen a whole lot of irregular formations in this tense as well. So, for today, we’ll summarize the key points from the last nine lessons in order to get a clear picture of what the Present Tense is all about.
Beatriz: Recapitularemos.
Joseph: We will provide a recap.
Beatriz: All right. And we will see any new words today?
Joseph: We will.
Beatriz: Which ones?
Joseph: We’ll look at “saber” – “to know”, “venir” – “to come” and “jugar” – “to play”.
Beatriz: I was thinking we were going to cover “elegir”, “enviar” y “situar”.
Joseph: Interesting. I’ve got an idea. Let’s include the verbs “elegir”, “enviar” y “situar” in an extra premium track.
Beatriz: Okay. Good idea. Great idea.
Joseph: We’ll show a little love to all our premium subscribers. And remember, you can always stop by Spanishpod101.com to sign-up for a seven day free trial and see what the premium subscription is all about.
Beatriz: So, in this lesson, we’ll review the different ways that the Present Tense is used.
Joseph: And we’ll cover the verb forms of “saber”, “venir” and “jugar”. Bea, ready?
Beatriz: Yes, ready.
Joseph: Empecemos.
Beatriz: Empecemos.
Joseph: Let’s begin at the beginning. The first two verb conjugation lessons provided an overview of our study of verbs.
Beatriz: Right. There, we explained that verbs have different moods.
Joseph: The Indicative, Subjunctive and Imperative Moods.
Beatriz: That they have different persons.
Joseph: The first, second and third person. And that they have number.
Beatriz: That they can be either singular or plural.
Joseph: Correcto.
Beatriz: De ahí empezamos a estudiar el uso y la formación de los verbos conjugados en tiempo presente del modo indicativo.
Joseph: Así es. And from there, we began to study the usage and formation of verbs conjugated in the Present Tense of the Indicative Mood. In Lesson 3, we discussed timeless truths. There, we showed how the Present Tense is used to express truths that aren’t bound up by time.
Beatriz: Claro, como por ejemplo “un triángulo tiene tres lados”.
Joseph: “A triangle has three sides.” Right. How about another now?
Beatriz: Por ejemplo, “Cuatro más tres son a siete”.
Joseph: “Four plus three equals seven.” And then, in Lesson 4, we looked at the actual present.
Beatriz: And what did we mean by the actual present?
Joseph: We were just referring to an action that lasts for a certain amount of time and when this action is expressed by the verb, it takes place within that duration.
Beatriz: All right. Like for example, “Agradezco su ayuda”.
Joseph: “I appreciate your help.” Right. So, it’s like this expression that you make takes place within the duration of your appreciation.
Beatriz: Exactly. Tengo sed.
Joseph: Another good example. If to say that the action of you saying that “you’re thirsty” takes place within the duration of your thirst as a whole. Then, in Lesson 5 we studied the habitual present.
Beatriz: And by that we meant?
Joseph: Well, the thing is: if we use the Present Tense to refer to discontinuous acts, that are not carried out in the present moment, but that have been carried out before and will be carried out after, we say that the present is habitual.
Beatriz: There you go. And a couple of examples: “Me levanto a las seis de la mañana”.
Joseph: “I get up at 6 in the morning.”
Beatriz: Or “María siempre llega tarde”.
Joseph: “Maria always shows up late.” After that, in Lesson 6, we looked at how the Present Tense of the Indicative Mood can be used to ask for someone’s approval for something.
Beatriz: For example?
Joseph: For example, if we’re out at a restaurant and I’m looking over a wine list, I might ask you “¿Pedimos una botella?” Literally, “Do we order a bottle?”, but taken with the sense of approval, we can translate it as “Should we order a bottle?”
Beatriz: Claro, el presente de aprobación.
Joseph: The Present of Approval.
Beatriz: Another example. “¿Te llamó más tarde?”
Joseph: And again, literally, “Do I call you later?”, but with the sense of requesting someone’s approval “Should I call you later?” or “Can I call you later on?”. So, Lesson 3 – “Timeless Truth”, Lesson 4 – “The Actual Present”, Lesson 5 – “The Habitual Present”, Lesson 6 – “Approval”. This brings us to Lesson 7, where we spoke about the Present Tense when it refers to a future action. It’s like, when we use the Present Tense this way, we’re psychologically bringing the future to the present.
Beatriz: “Más tarde te llamo de mi celular”.
Joseph: Exactly. So, literally we translate “I call you later on my cell phone”, but because of the context, “más tarde” – “later” we know that it’s referring to a future action, so we would say “I’ll call you later on my cell phone.”
Beatriz: All right. Another example: “Ya hablamos”.
Joseph: Right. Literally, “We talk now”, but in this sense “We’ll be talking soon” or “Talk to you soon.” Here we’re expressing the present intention of realizing the future action.
Beatriz: Muy bien.
Joseph: And, in Lesson 8, just a couple of weeks ago, we looked at the Present Tense when it’s used as a command.
Beatriz: All right. The whole thing about “dame” versus “me da”.
Joseph: Right. And when we use the present as a command, we describe an action that someone else must carry out on account of our order.
Beatriz: “Me llamas a las ocho” or “llámame a las ocho”.
Joseph: And, both of those mean “Call me at 8 o’clock” and the first is conjugated to the Present Tense of the Indicative Mood, though it has an imperative value “me llamas”, while the second “llámame” isn’t out right command, “un mandato”, “en el modo imperativo”, in the Imperative Mood.
Beatriz: Yes, no more.
Joseph: That’s right. Last week, in Lesson 9, we covered the Historical Present.
Beatriz: The time machine.
Joseph: How about an example to keep this fresh in our mind?
Beatriz: “En la primavera de 1860 el autor escribe su obra maestra”.
Joseph: “In the spring of 1860, the author writes hi masterpiece.” So, it’s the present action is actualized. It is presented with more liveliness to the speaker. The speaker’s mentally transported to the past as if he’s travelling back in time and witnessing the past action as it’s happening.
Beatriz: That’s a lot of different ways that Present Tense can be used.
Joseph: Yes, right? But it’s really a fortunate thing.
Beatriz: Why is that?
Joseph: Because it has forms to memorize.
Beatriz: Ya llegó la hora de estudiar la formación.
Joseph: “La formación”.
Beatriz: “Cómo conjugar los verbos”.
Joseph: “How to conjugate verbs.” And today, we’re looking at the verbs “saber” – “to know”, “venir” – “to come” and “jugar” – “to play”. Now, with the verb “saber”, the only irregularity is the first person singular “se”, while the rest of the forms follow the regular pattern for verbs in the second conjugation. Beatriz, shall we run through the conjugation?
Beatriz: Yes. “Saber”.
Joseph: “To know.”
Beatriz: “Yo sé”.
Joseph: “I know.”
Beatriz: “Tú sabes”.
Joseph: “You know.”
Beatriz: “Él sabe”.
Joseph: “He knows.”
Beatriz: “Nosotros sabemos”.
Joseph: “We know.”
Beatriz: “Vosotros sabéis”.
Joseph: “You all know.”
Beatriz: “Ellos saben”.
Joseph: “They know.” All right. And now, Beatriz, to make this a little bit clear, can you think of a couple of examples?
Beatriz: Yes. What about “Yo sé que tienes razón”.
Joseph: “I know that you’re right.” What a good example.
Beatriz: You wish. All right.
Joseph: A ver otro.
Beatriz: Okay. “Tú sabes cuánto me gustas”.
Joseph: “You know how much I like you.”
Beatriz: “Él sabe bailar”.
Joseph: “He knows how to dance.”
Beatriz: “Nosotros sabemos multiplicar”.
Joseph: “We know how to multiply.”
Beatriz: “Vosotros sabéis la verdad”.
Joseph: “You all know the truth.”
Beatriz: “Ellos saben demasiado”.
Joseph: “They know too much.” All right, very nice. So now, Beatriz, let’s move on to the verb “venir”. Here we find a verb that follows the irregular patterns of the verb “tener” except for the second person plural. But the “e” to “ie” stem change from “tener” or “venir” to “tienes” or “vienes”, and the first person end in “go”, “tengo” and “vengo”, make these two easy to understand together. Beatriz, shall we dance?
Beatriz: All right, let’s go. “Venir”.
Joseph: “To come.”
Beatriz: “Yo vengo”.
Joseph: “I come.”
Beatriz: “Tú vienes”.
Joseph: “You come.”
Beatriz: “Él viene”.
Joseph: “He comes.”
Beatriz: “Nosotros venimos”.
Joseph: “We come.”
Beatriz: “Vosotros venís”.
Joseph: “You all come.”
Beatriz: “Ellos vienen”.
Joseph: “They come.” Very nice. And now, Beatriz, if you could give us a couple of examples.
Beatriz: Okay, why not? “Yo vengo de vacaciones”.
Joseph: “I’m coming back from vacations.”
Beatriz: “Tú vienes de hacer deporte”.
Joseph: “You’re coming back from playing sports.”
Beatriz: “¿Vienes conmigo?”
Joseph: “Do you want to come with me?”
Beatriz: “Nosotros venimos a verte”.
Joseph: “We come to see you.”
Beatriz: “Vosotros venís preocupados”.
Joseph: “You all come worried.”
Beatriz: Right. “Él viene de hacer ejercicios”.
Joseph: “He comes back from exercising.” Muy bien, Beatriz. So, with those examples, we’ll be able to understand the verb, remember the verb “venir”, a little bit better. Lastly, let’s look at the verb “jugar” – “to play”. This verb sees a “u” to “ue” stem change in all the forms of the Present Tense of the Indicative Mood, except the first and second person plural, “jugamos” and “jugáis”. Let’s go through the conjugation and see exactly how it sounds. Beatriz?
Beatriz: Okay. “Jugar”.
Joseph: “To play.”
Beatriz: “Yo juego”.
Joseph: “I play.”
Beatriz: “Tú juegas”.
Joseph: “You play.”
Beatriz: “Él juega”.
Joseph: “He plays.”
Beatriz: “Nosotros jugamos”.
Joseph: “We play.”
Beatriz: “Vosotros jugáis”.
Joseph: “You all play.”
Beatriz: “Ellos juegan”.
Joseph: “They play.” Okay. And, Beatriz, how about a couple of examples to really make this stick?
Beatriz: Okay. “Nosotros jugamos fútbol”.
Joseph: Okay. “We play soccer”, “We play football.”
Beatriz: “Ellos juegan sin pensar”.
Joseph: “They gamble” or “They play without thinking about it.” “Jugar” can also mean “to gamble”.
Beatriz: Okay. “Tú juegas rápido”.
Joseph: “You gamble quickly.” All right. “You play quickly.”
Beatriz: Okay. “Ella juega a ser mamá”.
Joseph: “She plays mommy” or, you know, “she acts out mommy.”


Beatriz: Bueno Joseph, ha sido todo un gusto.
Joseph: Beatriz, como siempre, disfruté mucho la lección. Thanks everyone for joining us.
Beatriz: And leave us a comment. Ask us a question.
Joseph: Join our community of students and instructors in this interactive space we call SpanishPod101.
Beatriz: Hasta la próxima. ¡Chao!

Bonus Paradigms