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Lesson Transcript

Joseph: “Alalalau I’m so cold!” Bienvenidos. Welcome to Spanishpod101.com! My name is Joseph and I’m joined here by Beatrice. ¿Qué tal Bea?
Beatriz: Todo bien, gracias. Nice to be here, Joseph!
Joseph: Beatrice, el gusto es mío, the pleasure is mine! Beatrice, I’m really excited about today’s lesson. We’ve got some really interesting things to cover today.
Beatriz: Yes, today we’re going to learn some more about la cultura andina.
Joseph: That’s right, the Indian culture. And this has such a strong influence in Peruvian culture as a whole, don’t you think?
Beatriz: Of course, definitely!
Joseph: So, last time we looked at expressions related to food and in particular to those that we use when we’re eating dessert.
Beatriz: El postre.
Joseph: Right! And we talked about the delicious fruit of Peru and focused on a really special one. La lúcuma. Today, we’re going to shift gears a little bit and talk about some cold weather expressions. Beatrice, do you like the cold weather?
Beatriz: Are you kidding?
Joseph: I’ll take that as a no. All right! So, be sure to reference this lesson with Newbie Lesson 15 so
that you can further compare what we’re covering here.
Beatriz: Empecemos con las conversaciones.
Joseph: That’s a great idea! Let’s begin with the conversations. Now, in Newbie Lesson 15 we heard the following conversation:
MARCELO: ¡Hace frío! ¿Tienes frío?
DANIELA: ¡Sí! Yo tengo frío.
MARCELO: Yo también tengo frío.
DANIELA: ¿Necesitamos abrigos?
MARCELO: Necesitamos gorros y guantes también.
Joseph: This time with the translation! Ahora incluiremos la traducción.
MARCELO: ¡Hace frío! ¿Tienes frío?
Joseph: “It’s cold out. Are you cold?”
DANIELA: ¡Sí! Yo tengo frío.
F3: “Yes, I’m cold.”
MARCELO: Yo también tengo frío.
Joseph: “I’m cold, too.”
DANIELA: ¿Necesitamos abrigos?
F3: “Do we need coats?”
MARCELO: Necesitamos gorros y guantes también.
Joseph: “We need hats and gloves, too.”
Joseph: So, that conversation is pretty much standard and would be understood anywhere in the Spanish speaking world. Now, let’s hear what that sounds like in Peruvian Spanish, and in particular using some expressions that are common to highland Peru.
ALEJANDRO: ¡Hace un frío de la patada!
ROCÍO: ¡Ay, sí! ¡Alalau!
ALEJANDRO: Yo también estoy con frío.
ROCÍO: ¿Nos ponemos chompas?
ALEJANDRO: Sí, mejor, y chullos también.
Joseph: Once again, slowly! Una vez más, esta vez lentamente.
ALEJANDRO: ¡Hace un frío de la patada!
ROCÍO: ¡Ay, sí! ¡Alalau!
ALEJANDRO: Yo también estoy con frío.
ROCÍO: ¿Nos ponemos chompas?
ALEJANDRO: Sí, mejor, y chullos también.
Joseph: So, it’s not hard to notice that we have some big differences in these two conversations, huh?
Beatriz: No!
Joseph: To begin, let’s look at the way “It’s cold out.” was rendered in Peruvian Spanish. Bea, could you repeat that for us, please?
Beatriz: ¡Hace un frío de la patada!
Joseph: “It’s freezing cold.” Now, in Newbie Lesson 15 it sounded like this:
MARCELO: ¡Hace frío!
Joseph: “It’s cold out.”
Joseph: Beatrice, what’s the major difference here?
Beatriz: Bueno la versión peruana es mucho más enfática.
Joseph: Alright, that’s a good start! So, the Peruvian version is much more emphatic. And this seems to be a recurring theme in our lessons. I mean, in Peru, it’s very common to exaggerate, to really emphasize what you’re feeling, don’t you think?
Beatriz: Claro. “De la patada”, esta expresión describe algo que está de lo peor. Osea que está pesimo.
Joseph: Right! So, this expression describes something that’s as bad as a kick “de la patada”. Here, we see “un frío de la patada”.
Beatriz: Right! We also use this expression when we’re talking about being hungry. This expresses intensity, too.
Joseph: Good point! And when you do that, what’s the expression sound like?
Beatriz: Tengo un hambre de la patada.
Joseph: Right! And in that case we might translate it as “I’m so hungry.” or “I’m famished.” or something like that. And literally, “una patada” is a kick, right?
Beatriz: Yes!
Joseph: I mean, it comes from the verb “patear” which means “to kick”.
Beatriz: ASí es. So, you can see the image of this figure of speech.
Joseph: Right! I really like this one, “de la patada, tengo un frío de la patada”. It’s a good way to express yourself and emphasize it at intensity as you say what you’re trying to say. So, again, the standard way to say “It’s cold out.” is:
MARCELO: ¡Hace frío!
Joseph: “It’s cold out.”
Joseph: And in Peruvian Spanish we can say:
Beatriz: ¡Hace un frío de la patada!
Joseph: “It’s freezing cold.” Great! Next, we’ll look at the way “I’m cold.” was rendered in Peruvian Spanish. Beatrice, could you repeat that for us, please?
Beatriz: ¡Alalau!
Joseph: “I’m so cold!” Now, in Newbie Lesson 15 it sounded like this:
DANIELA: ¡Sí! Yo tengo frío.
F3: “Yes, I’m cold!”
Joseph: Beatrice, these two expressions don’t look anything like each other.
Beatriz: No, they don’t!
Joseph: What’s going on here? Why is that?
Beatriz: Because expression “Alalalau” is in Quechua.
Joseph: Quechua? But we’re studying Spanish here!
Beatriz: Well, in Peru, there are many words from Quechua that have entered into our Spanish.
Joseph: Fascinating! And “alalalau” is one of these, huh?
Beatriz: Yes! Y significa “que frío tengo”.
Joseph: So, the Quechua expression “alalalau” means “I’m so cold!” and as you say this, Quechua has leaked into the Spanish that’s spoken in Peru. Now, this is one that you can use to really impress people with, right?
Beatriz: Yes, I think so.
Joseph: Now, Beatrice, would you say that this is like an everyday expression? I mean I imagine that it would be understood in the highlands, but if I say it in Lima, do you think everyone would understand it or who would understand it?
Beatriz: I think most people would understand it.
Joseph: Yes?
Beatriz: Yes!
Joseph: It’s that common?
Beatriz: It’s very common and very famous, you know?
Joseph: Right! Good to know.
Beatriz: Yes!
Joseph: So, to recap, the standard way to say “I’m cold.” is:
DANIELA: ¡Sí! Yo tengo frío.
F3: “Yes, I’m cold!”
Joseph: And using a little bit of Quechua in your Peruvian Spanish you can say:
Beatriz: ¡Alalau!
Joseph: “I’m so cold!” Let’s go over some of the localisms that came up in the conversation.
Beatriz: Muy bien.
Joseph: There are some really interesting things to go over here. To begin, let’s look at the words “chompa” and “chullo”. Beatrice, what is a “chompa”?
Beatriz: “Chompa” is a thick sweater made of wool.
Joseph: Okay! And “una chompa andina”, what does a typical “chompa andina”, an Indian sweater, look like?
Beatriz: Is made of “alpaca”.
Joseph: Alpaca. Okay, so, alpaca wool.
Beatriz: Alpacawool and they use many colors, sometimes they use the natural colors from alpaca, they’re white and brown.
Joseph: Okay!
Beatriz: Whites and browns, different kind of whites and browns. And they also use a lot of color, too. They dye the alpaca and they have colorful alpaca sweaters, too.
Joseph: Okay! So, what do they use to dye it?
Beatriz: They use natural seeds or they use a natural insect, the name is cochinilla, which is a very reared color. I mean, they use a lot of modern colors, too, you know?
Joseph: Okay! Very interesting! And now, that other word “chullo”. What is a “chullo”? I mean, these are Quchuan words.
Beatriz: Exactly! Yes.
Joseph: That are used in the Spanish of Peru. But, what is a “chullo”?
Beatriz: I mean, chullo is a specific hat of the highland people.
Joseph: Okay! So, this is the one that…
Beatriz: Colors your ears.
Joseph: Right! This is the one that we associate so strongly with the Andean cultures. It’s a little pointy on the top, I mean it comes to a point and then it comes down and covers your ears and there’re almost made out of alpaca, right?
Beatriz: Yes, they’re wonderful, they’re so beautiful.
Joseph: They are! Sometimes they can be very detailed. Detallados, no?
Beatriz: Yes, they could be very detailed, you could use them finest wool that you will find in the world.
Joseph: Okay! Now, in this lesson we’ve talked about the influence of Quechuan in Peruvian Spanish and we don’t want to give anyone the wrong idea that you’re going to go to Peru or you’re going to speak with a Peruvian and they’re going to be speaking Quechua the whole time and you’re not going to understand them.
Beatriz: Of course not!
Joseph: But, there is a presence of Quechua in Peruvian Spanish. Can you think of a couple of words like for food, you know, some terms that we use in food that come from Quechua?
Beatriz: For example, for “corn” we use “choclo”.
Joseph: Right!
Beatriz: Choclo
Joseph: Choclo
Beatriz: But that is maíz in Spanish.
Joseph: Right! Maíz.
Beatriz: Maíz. Choclo.
Joseph: Right! But we say choclo.
Beatriz: Yes!
Joseph: How about another one?
Beatriz: For example, for “potato” “papa”.
Joseph: Right!
Beatriz: Papa.
Joseph: So, “papa” which is “potato” also comes from Quechua. And, what about a common name for a person?
Beatriz: This is a lovely name that you hear a lot is taita.
Joseph: Right! Taita. And taita is “papá” or “father”, right?
Beatriz: Yes, yes!
Joseph: Right! And you hear that a lot, it’s like a form of respect.
Beatriz: Yes, like for example, you hear, you can hear on the street or you can read some “cuentos andinos”, they talk about “el taita”.
Joseph: Right! Taita is the father. And, one thing that’s interesting is in Lima, you know? We have this huge mixture. As a male, when you’re talking to someone from the highlands, they will address you like a woman, they’ll address you as “taita” or “papá”. And it’s interesting when they say “papá” because they’re translating the Quechua to the Spanish.
Beatriz: They always go back and forward all the time. For example, you’re in a market, in an upper market you’ll find people from the highlands and they are selling for example the potatoes “que traen de la sierra”, that they bring from the highlands, and then they are talking with these people in Quechua.
Joseph: Right!
Beatriz: And then they speak to you in Spanish.
Joseph: In Spanish, right! They’re going back and forward. That’s such an interesting thing. Now, real quick, what about some of the animals? What are some names of animals that come directly from Quechua and which we use in Spanish?
Beatriz: Por ejemplo la llama
Joseph: Right! So, the llama.
Beatriz: El puma.
Joseph: And the puma.
Beatriz: La vicuña
Joseph: Right! So, the vicuna.
Beatriz: El cuy
Joseph: And the “cuy”. So, an interesting thing here is that these first three, the llama, puma and vicuña are also used in English. We don’t translate that. So, even though you might not have known, you’re actually speaking Quechua words in English, as well as Spanish. And “cuy”, which is guinea pig, we don’t use that word in English, but in Spanish, that’s the word that they use.


Joseph: Okay! Well, this will conclude today’s lesson. Don’t forget to reference this lesson with Newbie Lesson 15, so we’ll see you again tomorrow.
Beatriz: Nos vemos mañana.

Dialogue - Peruvian

Dialogue - Standard