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Dylan: Hola, hola a todos, habla Dylan, ¿cómo están?
Carlos: What’s going on, pod101world? My name is Carlos. “The Spanish terms you wish you’d never heard but cannot live without.”
Dylan: In this lesson, you will learn about negative words.
Carlos: This conversation takes place in a home.
Dylan: This conversation is between Daniel and Andrés.
Carlos: The speakers are friends so they are speaking informally. Let’s listen to the conversation.
ANDRÉS: No puedo creer esto, ¿no sabes cómo se llama tu nueva mujer más bella del mundo?
DANIEL: Ajaja, ¡no!
ANDRÉS: ¡¡¡Ahy!!! Daniel, ¡nunca vas a aprender!
DANIEL: ¿Por qué lo dices?
ANDRÉS: Porque siempre te enamoras a primera vista.
Andrés: I can’t believe this; you don’t know the name of your newest most beautiful woman in the world?
Daniel: Hahaha, no!
Andrés: Ohhhhh!!! Daniel, you’re never going to learn!
Daniel: Why do you say that?
Andrés: Because you always fall in love at first sight.
Carlos: Like Daniel always used the fall in love at first sight, bla, bla. Do you think that guys ever do learn? I mean I have an opinion too as a guy but I want to hear a female point of view. Like you ever know like a Latin dude, like you know, because you know, we just see a girl and we are like, Oh my God, you guys can’t see that but I’m like you know, struck down.
Dylan: I don’t think guys ever learn.
Carlos: Okay that’s a pretty good….Yes, no… I think you are right but I think they generally go in that sense so maybe the stereotype of the Latin lover kind of holds.
Dylan: Yes, I agree with you Carlos. Wow.
Carlos: Dare I say it? I think I did.
Dylan: Oh Oh!
Carlos: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Dylan: “Aprender”.
Carlos: “To learn.”
Dylan: “A-pren-der”, “aprender”.
Dylan: “¿Por qué?”
Carlos: “Why?” “For what reason.”
Dylan: “¿Por qué?”, “¿por qué?”
Dylan: “Porque”.
Carlos: “Because.”
Dylan: “Por-que”, “porque”.
Dylan: “Enamorar”.
Carlos: “To enamor”, “to fall in love.”
Dylan: “E-na-mo-rar”, “enamorar”.
Dylan: “Primero, primera”.
Carlos: “First”, “main”, “basic.”
Dylan: “Pri-me-ro, pri-me-ra”, “primero, primera”.
Dylan: “Vista”.
Carlos: “Sight”, “view.”
Dylan: “Vis-ta”, “vista”.
Carlos: Okay guys, let’s have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Dylan: The first word we’ll look at is “aprender”.
Carlos: “Aprender”, “to learn.” Something we are all here to do.
Dylan: Yes. Since coming on board, how much Spanish do you think you’ve learned?
Carlos: Well, it’s hard to say but what I do know is that repetition really helps.
Dylan: Oh, yes?
Carlos: Oh, definitely. Between the vocab and grammar, these lessons really drill them into you without making it so obvious.
Dylan: That’s great. I know that I’ve noticed an improvement now that you have gotten over your embarrassment of speaking in front of everybody.
Carlos: Audience that will be the hardest thing.
Dylan: Well, let’s hear how it was used in our conversation.
Carlos: Sure. When Andrés who is still not believing his friend tells him, “¡¡¡Ahy!!! Daniel, ¡nunca vas a aprender!”
Dylan: “Ayy! Daniel, you are never going to learn.” I’m kind of skeptical also when a friend comes to me like this.
Carlos: You never know things can always change.
Dylan: That’s true. Other than becoming fluent in Spanish, what is one thing that you would like to do?
Carlos: “Yo quiero aprender a surfear”.
Dylan: You want to learn to surf?
Carlos: I live in Costa Rica, why not?
Dylan: You would think that the country was a small Island with just beaches.
Carlos: I know and that view completely shattered when you get here. You land in Alajuela and not a beach at all, but you know, especially seeing how different the weather is in San José.
Dylan: Now you’ve seen how many verbs like “aprender” have a noun that corresponds.
Carlos: Yes, but for the life of me I cannot think of what the noun form of “aprender” would be.
Dylan: “El aprendizaje”.
Carlos: Huh?
Dylan: Say it with me, “el aprendizaje”.
Carlos: “El aprendizaje”. You know if I heard that word by itself, I don’t think I would ever have figured it out.
Dylan: “Aprendizaje” is a noun that means “learning” or “apprenticeship.”
Carlos: Okay, that makes sense.
Dylan: Now we are going to take a look at two words that sound exactly the same.
Carlos: What do you mean?
Dylan: An English example would be see and sea.
Carlos: Ah, I see. Okay, so what do we have?
Dylan: Now a conjunction.
Carlos: Which?
Dylan: “¿Por qué?”
Carlos: And now let me ask you this, before we use it in a sample sentence.
Dylan: Shoot.
Carlos: Is this “por qué” one or two words?
Dylan: Two words.
Carlos: Okay, so this is “por qué”, two words means “why.”
Dylan: As in the conversation where Daniel asks “¿Por qué lo dices?”
Carlos: “Why do you say that?”
Dylan: So this conjunction is really commonly used and is worth really learning along with its sibling. So we’ll get to that in a minute.
Carlos: So I could ask, “¿Por qué no viniste a la fiesta?”
Dylan: “Why didn’t you come to the party?” And then any answer would simply be an excuse.
Carlos: Or you can use “por qué” sibling which is also named “porque”.
Dylan: But this time one word, that is an easy way to differentiate the two when you are reading and writing.
Carlos: All it takes is a minute or two to really train your mind to differentiate them in such a way.
Dylan: So we can use “porque”, “because”, as an answer to any question that uses “¿por qué?”, ”Why?”
Carlos: My mother always said that “because” isn’t an answer.
Dylan: Let me guess, a couple of times you asked her a question and she answered you with “because.”
Carlos: Yes and then she followed that up with the classic “do as I say not as I do”.
Dylan: I’m getting ready for that one when my kids are older.
Carlos: I bet.
Dylan: But we digress. Where was the conjunction “porque”, “because”, used in the conversation?
Carlos: When Andrés answers Daniel’s question from our last example.
Dylan: “Porque siempre te enamoras a primera vista”. “Because you always fall in love at first sight.”
Carlos: That was a nice little explanation.
Dylan: I know. I was about to say that [inaudible 05:43]
Carlos: Ok, what’s next?
Dylan: The verb “enamorarse”.
Carlos: Okay, now we are getting serious.
Dylan: “Enamorarse”, “to fall in love.”
Carlos: Yes. And that is what Andrés is so skeptical about.
Dylan: Right. “Porque siempre te enamoras a primera vista”.
Carlos: “Because you always fall in love at first sight.”
Dylan: Typical Latin man.
Carlos: Now we already talked about that. Let’s not return.
Dylan: Bueno bueno. The verb “enamorarse” like I can say “mi mamá se enamoró de mi papá en 1965”.
Carlos: “My mother fell in love with my father in 1965.” Man that must have been crazy, Californian, the sixties...
Dylan: And the thing is I know they have only told me a fraction of what happened.
Carlos: Oh, I’m sure.
Dylan: Now we definitely hear a more common adjective....
Carlos: Oh, I know, “enamorados”.
Dylan: “Lovers. “People in love.
Carlos: Now we are thinking of this adjective or verb I can’t help but think of enamored. Which we really don’t use in English ever.
Dylan: You know you are right. I can’t think of anytime in my life when I told someone I was enamored with them.
Carlos: Yes, unless you want to be overly poetic for no reason.
Dylan: Ha! Yes, I’m not the type.
Carlos: Can’t say I am either.
Dylan: Yeah, right.
Carlos: Okay, moving on.
Dylan: Moving on to the adjective “primero, primera”.
Carlos: “First”, “main”, “basic.”
Dylan: “Porque siempre te enamoras a primera vista”.
Carlos: “Because you always fall in love at first sight.”
Dylan: Now there is something that should be pointed out with “primero, primera”.
Carlos: What’s that?
Dylan: “Primer” is used instead of “primero” before a singular masculine noun.
Carlos: For example?
Dylan: For example, “el primer hombre”.
Carlos: “The first man.”
Dylan: But if we have a plural masculine noun like “carros”...
Carlos: “Los primeros carros”, “the first cars.”
Dylan: Exactamente.
Carlos: How about a feminine noun?
Dylan: Bueno, “la primera mujer”.
Carlos: “The first woman.” Hey, what would you call “the first lady” in Spanish?
Dylan: “La primera dama”.
Carlos: Ah okay, makes sense.
Dylan: Last but not least we have the feminine noun “vista” which in the past we have said means “view.”
Carlos: Right and it does and there’s also more meanings that we did not mention before.
Dylan: Correct and what are those?
Carlos: “Vista”. “Sight”, “eyesight” and “the view”.
Dylan: So we have Mr. Enamorado when Andrés once again tells him “Porque siempre te enamoras a primera vista”.
Carlos: “Because you always fall in love at first sight.”
Dylan: Or we can say it in another meaning.
Carlos: I got this. “La vista desde mi ventana es maravillosa”.
Dylan: I had a feeling you were going to get into that. “The view from my window is marvelous.”
Carlos: You know what I just realized?
Dylan: What’s that?
Carlos: The verb “ver”, “to see” or “look” is a related word.
Dylan: You just realized that?
Carlos: Better late than never, Dylan.
Dylan: I guess but that is kind of negative.
Carlos: We are studying negative words today, huh?

Lesson focus

Dylan: Yes, let’s go over a few common negative expressions.
Carlos: And when do we use these words?
Dylan: We use these words whenever you are negating. Denying or speaking negatively.
Carlos: Okay, let’s check that out.
Dylan: “No”.
Carlos: “No.” Interjection, exclamation, adverb, adjective.
Dylan: “Nunca”.
Carlos: “Never.” Adverb.
Dylan: “Nadie”.
Carlos: “Nobody”, “no one.” Pronoun.
Dylan: “Nada”.
Carlos: “Nothing.” Pronoun, adverb.
Dylan: “Ni”.
Carlos: “Neither”, “nor.” Conjunction.
Dylan: “Ni siquiera”.
Carlos: “Not even.” Conditional phrase. And some example sentences?
Dylan: “No soy ningún experto”.
Carlos: “I am no expert.”
Dylan: “Nunca estudias”.
Carlos: “You never study.”
Dylan: “Nadie me ayuda”.
Carlos: “Nobody helps me.”
Dylan: “Es mejor que nada”.
Carlos: “It’s better than nothing.”
Dylan: “No fumo ni bebo”.
Carlos: “I neither smoke nor drink.”
Dylan: “Ni siquiera lo conoces”.
Carlos: “You don’t even know him.”
Carlos: And our example from today’s conversation ...
Dylan: “¡Nunca vas a entender!”


Carlos: “You are never going to learn.” Well, you know, I learned something and you know what guys, short and sweet but that just about does it for today.
Dylan: ¡Hasta luego, chicos!
Carlos: Nos vemos, ¡chao!


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