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Lesson Transcript

Dylan: Hola, hola a todos. Habla Dylan, ¿cómo están?
Carlos: What’s going on, pod 101 world? My name is Carlo
Dylan: In this lesson, you will learn about the preterit perfect tense.
Carlos: The conversation takes place in a bar.
Dylan: The conversation is between Lau, Juanca and Rodri.
Carlos: The speakers are friends so they’ll be speaking informally.
Carlos: Let’s listen to the conversation.
LAU: Chicos, no me siento bien, estoy mareada.
JUANCA: Ajaja, ¡no seas pendeja! ¡Y toma más rápido!
RODRI: El partido ni ha terminado, no nos vamos a ir todavía, ¡entonces sigue tomando!
LAU: Bueno chicos, pero si me emborracho, ustedes me llevan a mi casa.
JUANCA: ¡Me extraña!, para eso son los amigos.
Lau: Guys, I don't feel good; I'm dizzy.
Juanca: Haha, don't be a wimp, and drink faster!
Rodri: The game isn't even over, and we're not going to leave yet, so keep drinking!
Lau: Okay guys, but if I get drunk, you take me home.
Juanca: Of course! That's what friends are for.
Carlos: Well, these kind of friends are trying to force liquor down this girl’s throat.
Dylan: Yes, good friends. Woohoo.
Carlos: Now is it normal Dylan for gentlemen to be asking a female friend to be drinking more and more? Is that your experience in Latin America or in Costa Rica specifically?
Dylan: Yes, absolutely. I mean girls and guys, they are both equals at the bar.
Carlos: Really!
Dylan: Yes.
Carlos: Well, that’s something you don’t learn every day.
Dylan: Yes.
Carlos: Men and women are equal at the bar?!
Dylan: Oh, yes.
Carlos: Wow. That’s why I’m a light weight around here. I can’t drink with these girls in Costa Rica. They are just pounding down Guarro and are like yeah what?
Dylan: Yes.
Carlos: Okay guys, let’s have a closer look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Dylan: “Mareada”.
Carlos: “Dizzy.”
Dylan: “Ma-re-a-da”, “mareada”.
Dylan: “Pendejo, pendeja”.
Carlos: “Whip.”
Dylan: “Pen-de-jo, pen-de-ja”, “pendejo, pendeja”.
Dylan: “Partido”.
Carlos: “Game”, “match.”
Dylan: “Par-ti-do”, “partido”.
Dylan: “Todavía”.
Carlos: “Yet”, “still.”
Dylan: “To-da-ví-a”, “todavía”.
Dylan: “Seguir”.
Carlos: “To continue”, “to follow.”
Dylan: “Se-guir”, “seguir”.
Dylan: “Emborracharse”.
Carlos: “To get drunk.”
Dylan: “Em-bo-rra-char-se”, “emborracharse”.
Carlos: Okay guys, let’s have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Dylan: The first word we’ll look at is “mareada”.
Carlos: “Mareada” sounds like a name. But wait, that does sound a little familiar.
Dylan: It should. “Mareada” is an adjective that means “dizzy.”
Carlos: And oh wait, didn’t we have the verb?
Dylan: Yes. “Marearse”, “to make sick” or “dizzy”. That was in the last lesson.
Carlos: Ah, ok. So it makes sense now when Lau says “Chicos, no me siento bien, estoy mareada”.
Dylan: “Guys, I don’t feel good, I’m dizzy.” Dizzy is never a good feeling.
Carlos: No, no it’s not. “Me sentí mareado cuando tuvimos un terremoto”.
Dylan: You weren’t scared when we had the earthquake?
Carlos: Well, sure I was scared a little bit, but I was more dizzy like I messed up my equilibrium.
Dylan: I see, so you had a “mareo”.
Carlos: “The dizziness.” You better believe it.
Dylan: Now the next word is “sticky.”
Carlos: “Sticky”? What is the Spanish word for “sticky.”
Dylan: No, no, no. The next word sounds a little vulgar.
Carlos: Okay.
Dylan: “Pendejo, pendeja”.
Carlos: Yes, you are right. That does sound vulgar.
Dylan: But for our purposes, it means “wimp.”
Carlos: “Wimp”, okay, right. So when Juan Carlos says “¡no seas pendeja!”
Dylan: He’s saying “don’t be a wimp”.
Carlos: Is there an adverb form like “wimpy”?
Dylan: I’m not sure.
Carlos: Now how about a sample sentence with “pendejo”.
Dylan: Cuando el niño no quiso subirse a la bicicleta le llamaron pendejo. “No seas pendejo, móntate en la bicicleta”.
Carlos: “Don’t be a wimp, get back on the bike.”
Dylan: Yes!
Carlos: Well, they are calling her “wimpy” but could they also say “coward”?
Dylan: I guess they could.
Carlos: So you can use “cobarde” as a related word.
Dylan: “Cobarde”? Yes.
Carlos: Next up.
Dylan: “Partido”.
Carlos: “Partido”. “The game”, “the match”, something I’m forced to watch every Sunday.
Dylan: Oh yes.
Carlos: In the United States it was football. Here its football, soccer I mean. There isn’t even any kind of season I can make out. They just keep playing and playing and playing soccer.
Dylan: Yes, I’m not really sure of the season either but they have a lot of “partidos”.
Carlos: And when I want to change the channels, it’s interesting because it’s my girlfriend who says...
Dylan: “¡El partido ni ha terminado!”
Carlos: “The game isn’t even over!”
Dylan: That’s funny. ¿No te gustan los partidos para nada?
Carlos: Para nada, Dylan. I have no type of interest in it. And I know that sounds bad coming from a dude but I just can’t get excited about this stuff. To tell you the truth, I barely understand it.
Dylan: Well, put it this way, if drunk guys can understand it, I think with a little effort you could probably understand it too.
Carlos: You got a point. Now what about some related words?
Dylan: “Equipo”, “team”. “Juego”, “game”. “Deporte”, “sport.”
Carlos: Man, I said just one but okay. All the better for the audience. What’s up next?
Dylan: Next up, “todavía”.
Carlos: “Todavía”. “Todavía” is one of my favorite words.
Dylan: Is it? Why?
Carlos: I just like the sound of using it in my sentences, “todavía”.
Dylan: Like in our conversation?
Carlos: Exactly. “No nos vamos a ir todavía”.
Dylan: And “we are not going to leave yet.”
Carlos: Or to think about someone standing in a line. I remember I was at the bank and I got a call and they said, “¿estás esperando todavía?.
Dylan: “You are still waiting?”
Carlos: Yes after two hours, it was not a good time, I absolutely despise the banks down here.
Dylan: You are not the only one.
Carlos: How else can we say “yet”?
Dylan: “Aún”, is another adverb.
Carlos: Right on. “Estamos en esta palabra todavía”.
Dylan: No, no, no. We are not still on that word. So.
Carlos: So what’s next then?
Dylan: The verb “seguir”.
Carlos: “Seguir”, “to follow”, “to continue.”
Dylan: “¡Entonces sigue tomando!”
Carlos: “So keep drinking!” Those are some good friends.
Dylan: Yes, very good friends. That poor girl is going to have a bad day tomorrow.
Carlos: Yes.
Dylan: “¿Tú sigues viviendo en San José?”
Carlos: “Are you still living in San José?” or “are you continuing to live in San José?”. Actually no Dylan, I don’t live in San José anymore. I made the move up north to Heredia.
Dylan: Good for you.
Carlos: So what about some related words?
Dylan: “Continuar”, “to continue”, is very closely a related word.
Carlos: I hadn’t thought about that.
Dylan: Last but not least, “emborracharse”.
Carlos: “Emborracharse”, “to get drunk”, “to make drunk.”
Dylan: Lau is trying to cover herself even though she is obviously still drunk.
Carlos: “Pero si me emborracho”.
Dylan: “But if I get drunk.”
Carlos: “Cuando tomo mucha cerveza me emborracho”.
Dylan: Yes, I heard about you getting drunk of a lot of beer.
Carlos: Yes it happens, what can I say, I can’t drink like Costa Rican girls.
Dylan: Another related word.
Carlos: “Borracho”, the adjective that means “drunk.”
Dylan: And never a good one to be called.
Carlos: No, not at all. If you can see someone being drunk, it’s never a good look. What’s the word for buzzed though. I’m not so drunk but I’m feeling it.
Dylan: It would be like “tapis” but we are in our right mind enough now to move on to our grammar section.

Lesson focus

Carlos: It’s still morning I should hope so.
Dylan: The preterit perfect is what we call a compound tense.
Carlos: Why you ask? Because we need to use to different words together in order to express it.
Dylan: First, we must conjugate the verb “haber”, “to have”, to agree with the subject of the verb that follows, that’s to say we conjugate “haber”, “to have”, to get the meaning. “I have, you have, he has, we have, they have or you all have.”
Carlos: Or “it has.” The second part of the compound tense is the past participle of the verb being carried out. In English, we often see “ed” or “en” endings on most verbs in the tense although there are some exceptions. For example..
Dylan: What?
Carlos: “He did.”
Dylan: “Asked.”
Carlos: “Dialed.”
Dylan: “Eaten.”
Carlos: “Beaten.”
Dylan: The past participle is a verbal form that either we can use as part of a verb phrase or as an adjective that modifies a noun.
Carlos: Right, and when we use it as part of a verb or phrase, the past participle has only one form. Which always ends in “o”. When we use it as an adjective modifying noun, the past participle must agree with the noun in gender and number.
Dylan: By combining the verb “haber”, “to have”, and the past participle of another verb, we can talk about past events in the following manner.
Carlos: Like “I have learned.”
Dylan: “You have eaten.”
Carlos: Or “he has studied.” But let’s take a look at the formation just to make sure we get this. So we have “haber” conjugated.
Dylan: Plus the past participle of the verb.
Carlos: Dylan, how about you take care of the Spanish and I take care of the English?
Dylan: Let’s go for it. “Yo he”.
Carlos: “I have.”
Dylan: “Tu has”.
Carlos: “You have.”
Dylan: “Él/ ella/ usted ha”.
Carlos: “He/she/you (formal) has.”
Dylan: “Nosotros hemos”.
Carlos: “We have.”
Dylan: “Vosotros habéis”.
Carlos: “You all have.”
Dylan: “Ellos/ellas han”.
Carlos: “They have.”
Dylan: “Ustedes han”.
Carlos: “You all have.”
Dylan: For regular “ar” verbs, the participle ending that replaces the “ar” infinitive ending is “ado”, “a-d-o”.
Carlos: For example, we have “caminar”, “to walk”, becomes what?
Dylan: “Caminado”, “walked.”
Carlos: Or “hablar”, “to talk”, becomes...
Dylan: “Hablado”, “talked.”
Carlos: Now listen up, for regular “ir” or “er” verbs the participle ending that replaces the “ir” “er” definitive ending is “-ido”.
Dylan: For example, “comer”, “to eat”, becomes...
Carlos: “Comido”, “eaten.”
Dylan: “Imprimir”, “to print”, becomes...
Carlos: “Imprimido”, “printed.”
Dylan: There are some common irregular past participle verbs. The following is a list of the verbs with the corresponding irregular past participle. Spanish infinitive verb and the irregular past participle. “Abrir”.
Carlos: “Abierto”.
Dylan: “Cubrir”.
Carlos: “Cubierto”.
Dylan: “Decir”.
Carlos: “Dicho”.
Dylan: “Describir”.
Carlos: “Descrito”.
Dylan: “Escribir”.
Carlos: “Escrito”.
Dylan: “Hacer”.
Carlos: “Hecho”.
Dylan: “Morir”.
Carlos: “Muerto”.
Dylan: “Poner”.
Carlos: “Puesto”.
Dylan: “Resolver”.
Carlos: “Resuelto”.
Dylan: “Romper”.
Carlos: “Roto”.
Dylan: “Ver”.
Carlos: ”Visto”.
Dylan: “Volver”. [*]
Carlos: “Vuelto”. Now listen up guys, some past participle forms differ depending on if we use them as part of a verb phrase or as an adjective. Here’s a list of common verbs with two different forms. The infinitive past participle verb phrase and the past participle adjective.
Dylan: “Bendecir, bendecido”. “Bendito, bendita”.
Carlos: “Confundir, confundido”. “Confuso, confusa”.
Dylan: “Despertar, despertado”. “Despierto, despierta”.
Carlos: “Freír, freído”. “Frito, frita”.
Dylan: “Imprimir, imprimido”. “Impreso, impresa”.
Carlos: “Soltar, soltado”. “Suelto, suelta” [*]. Now guys, that’s a lot of information, let’s look at some sample sentences so we get it down packed.
Dylan: “Yo he comido”.
Carlos: “I have eaten.”
Dylan: “Tú has trabajado”.
Carlos: “You have worked.”
Dylan: “Ella ha estudiado”.
Carlos: “She has studied.”
Dylan: “Nosotros hemos celebrado”.
Carlos: “We have celebrated.”
Dylan: “Ellos han aprendido”.
Carlos: “They have learned.”
Dylan: “Ustedes han perdido”.
Carlos: “You all have lost.”
Dylan: Or the example from our conversation...
Carlos: “El partido ni ha terminado”.
Dylan: “The game isn’t even finished.”


Carlos: It’s important to remember that many irregular verbs do not follow these rules that apply to regular verbs which makes them irregular. We will discuss the past participle of irregular verbs in other lessons. But you know what guys? That just about does it for today.
Dylan: ¡Chao!
Carlos: Nos vemos, ¡chao!


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