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Natalia: Buenos días, me llamo Natalia.
Carlos: What’s going on? My name is Carlos.
Natalia: “Calling Places.”
Carlos: What’s going on Naty? How are you doing today?
Natalia: I am doing really, really good, Carlos.
Carlos: Good, good. You know what Naty? In this lesson we are going to learn about adjectives.
Natalia: What in – what context?
Carlos: Well, Luis is looking for a job.
Natalia: Is he interviewing?
Carlos: Well, he is talking to an operator. So he is answering an ad.
Natalia: That’s a good way to find work.
Carlos: So then he is being polite.
Natalia: Of course, you want to be formal when you are looking for a job.
Carlos: Oh, most definitely. Well guys, we can get into this now.
Natalia: But I say we listen to the conversation.
LUIS: Alo, buenas tardes, llamaba para pedir información sobre el trabajo.
Operador: ¿Cuál trabajo?
LUIS: Vi su aviso en el periódico que ocupaban empleados nuevos.
Operador: Ay, sí, perdón, estoy distraída, las entrevistas son el lunes.
LUIS: Eh, ¿me puede dar la dirección?
Operador: Claro, ya se la doy, sólo recuerde traer su currículo.
And now, slowly.
Una vez más, esta vez lentamente.
LUIS: Alo, buenas tardes, llamaba para pedir información sobre el trabajo.
Operador: ¿Cuál trabajo?
LUIS: Vi su aviso en el periódico que ocupaban empleados nuevos.
Operador: Ay, sí, perdón, estoy distraída, las entrevistas son el lunes.
LUIS: Eh, ¿me puede dar la dirección?
Operador: Claro, ya se la doy, sólo recuerde traer su currículo.
And now, with the translation.
Ahora, incluimos la traducción.
LUIS: Alo, buenas tardes, llamaba para pedir información sobre el trabajo.
LUIS: Hi, good afternoon, I was calling to request information about the job.
Operador: ¿Cuál trabajo?
Operator: Which job?
LUIS: Vi su aviso en el periódico que ocupaban empleados nuevos.
LUIS: I saw your notice in the newspaper that you're looking for new employees.
Operador: Ay, sí, perdón, estoy distraída, las entrevistas son el lunes.
Operator: Oh yeah, I'm sorry. I'm out of sorts. The interviews are Monday.
LUIS: Eh, ¿me puede dar la dirección?
LUIS: Okay, can you give me the address?
Operador: Claro, ya se la doy, sólo recuerde traer su currículo.
Operator: Sure, I'll give it to you right now. Just remember to bring your resume.
Natalia: I am really good at job interviews.
Carlos: You didn’t even interview for this job.
Natalia: No, but I am saying when I go to an interview, I am always very polite and I just say like you know, I am here. You tell me what you need me to do, I will do my best to do it. I am at your service blah blah blah! Yeah and I always get the job.
Carlos: I am different than that but I always get my job too because I come in and I listen. This is what I am, this is what I am going to do for you and we can do this together.
Natalia: You know what, if I was the one interviewing you, I will be like, what do you think, egocentric person and I will throw you out. I am good for you when I am good and you need me.
Carlos: And you….
Natalia: And you need me more than I need you. I am leaving, bye.
Carlos: And you’d be losing a very – very, very valuable employee.
Natalia: Okay, Mr. Egocentric, why don’t we go to vocabulary?
Carlos: Okay, let’s take a look at the vocabulary for today’s lesson.
Carlos: We have a compound phrase.
Natalia: “Buenas tardes”.
Carlos: “Good afternoon.”
Natalia: “Bue-nas tar-des”, “buenas tardes”. Por ejemplo: “Buenas tardes, Señora”.
Carlos: “Good afternoon Ms.” And then we have a masculine noun.
Natalia: “Sobre”.
Carlos: “About”, “upon”, “on top of”, “over”, “above”, “envelope.”
Natalia: “So-bre”, “sobre”. Por ejemplo: “¿Pondrías las camisas sobre la cama por favor?”
Carlos: “Would you please put my shirts on the bed?” And then a verb.
Natalia: “Ocupar”.
Carlos: “To occupy”, “to take up.”
Natalia: “O-cu-par”, “ocupar”. Por ejemplo: “Dos carros están ocupando el espacio”.
Carlos: “Two cars have taken up the space.” And a feminine noun.
Natalia: “Entrevista”.
Carlos: “Interview.”
Natalia: “En-tre-vis-ta”, “entrevista”. Por ejemplo: “El artista tiene muchas entrevistas antes del concierto”.
Carlos: “The artist has a lot of interviews before the concert.” And another verb...
Natalia: “Recordar”.
Carlos: “To remember.”
Natalia: “Re-cor-dar”, “recordar”. “Recuerda poner el ventilador cuando salgas del baño”.
Carlos: “Remember to put on the fan when you come out of the bathroom.” And finally a verb.
Natalia: “Pedir”.
Carlos: “To ask for”, “to request.”
Natalia: “Pe-dir”, “pedir”. Por ejemplo: “Me pidió el teléfono”.
Carlos: “He asked me for my phone number.” Okay, let’s have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Natalia: “Buenas tardes”.
Carlos: “Buenas tardes”. “Good afternoon.”
Natalia: Now this is a compound phrase that it’s so basic that it might be overlooked but you know it’s important.
Carlos: Especially the fact that it’s cut short.
Natalia: That is one of the first things you learned in Costa Rica hah!
Carlos: What to just say “buenas” all the time?
Natalia: Exactly, we do everything short.
Carlos: Yep, but they aren’t in the conversation at all now.
Natalia: No, Luis uses the classic and polite “Alo, buenas tardes”.
Carlos: I still find that funny, “hello”, “alo”.
Natalia: Well, that’s only in the fun though. It would sound strange if you said it in person. So I recommend you don’t.
Carlos: Well, thanks for pointing that out now. I said that already many times.
Natalia: Okay, now I know you know the related phrases for “buenas tardes”.
Carlos: Yeah, sure, “buenas noches” which can mean “good evening” or also “good night.”
Natalia: And...
Carlos: “Buenos días” which means “good morning” but you know, “buenas” is changed from the feminine “buenas” to the masculine “buenos”.
Natalia: It is one of those changes that just clicks.
Carlos: Now what’s next on our list?
Natalia: We have not only a preposition but also a masculine noun.
Carlos: Okay, which?
Natalia: “Sobre”.
Carlos: “Sobre”. Which meaning are we dealing with here?
Natalia: Look at where it’s used in the conversation.
Carlos: “Llamaba para pedir información sobre el trabajo”. “I was calling to request information about the job.”
Natalia: So you tell me which meaning we are looking at.
Carlos: Okay, so “sobre” means “about.”
Natalia: Right but it can also mean “upon”, “on top of”, “over”, “above” as a preposition.
Carlos: And as a masculine noun.
Natalia: Well, just to be clear, I mean its “envelope.”
Carlos: But since it’s being used here as a preposition, how about another example sentence.
Natalia: “Yo compro muchos sobres todos los meses”. “I buy lot of envelopes every month.”
Carlos: That she does you know but particularly you can think of a related word.
Natalia: We could also say “about” with the phrase “acerca de”.
Carlos: And next...
Natalia: We have the verb “ocupar”.
Carlos: Now we’ve touched on this before, “ocupar”, “to occupy”, “to take up.” It’s also another cognate.
Natalia: You’ve been pointing those out a lot lately.
Carlos: I think it’s important for people to know. I mean there are a lot of words that just cross over.
Natalia: But don’t lull them into a false sense of security because there is a lot of false around.
Carlos: And that’s true. Thanks for reminding us.
Natalia: That’s why I am here for but look, Carlos, we know that “ocupar” means “to occupy” or “to take up.” How was it used in the conversation?
Carlos: “Vi su aviso en el periódico que ocupaban...”
Natalia: “Ocupaban”.
Carlos: “Que ocupaban empleados nuevos”.
Natalia: “I saw your notice in the newspapers that you are looking for new employees.”
Carlos: But wait!
Natalia: Okay, and remember, look at the meaning not the direct translation.
Carlos: I guess honestly I am taking up new employees but it just doesn’t sound right.
Natalia: That’s why we translated it as “looking.” That’s the thing about translation. It can be awkward which is why I hate reading translated edition books.
Carlos: You know, I am starting to see a point about that.
Natalia: Let’s look at another example that may make a little more sense to you. “Él siempre ocupa ese asiento”.
Carlos: “He always takes up the seat”, right?
Natalia: Right.
Carlos: Nice. That does make more sense but I get what you are saying about the translation. Next up...
Natalia: “Entrevista”.
Carlos: A feminine noun which means...
Natalia: “Interview.”
Carlos: Naty, how easy was your interview at spanishpod101.com?
Natalia: Did I even interview?
Carlos: Yeah, the first day we met. Remember, that was the interview.
Natalia: Well, I had no idea. See I am not good in interviews. I am good in interviews to the point that I don’t even know I am in an interview and I still get the job hah!
Carlos: Well, that’s because I convince you to take the job and here you are a year later with how many lessons under your belt?
Natalia: Well, that one, Carlos, I don’t even know but well, you know I don’t think Luis will have such an easy one.
Carlos: Why not?
Natalia: You heard the operator lesson “las entrevistas son el lunes”, “the interviews are on Monday.”
Carlos: Yeah, those open interviews are never easy.
Natalia: Yeah, these are kind of nerve-wracking for some people.
Carlos: I remember once.
Natalia: That’s perfect. “Recordar” means “to remember.” So how would you have said what you just said in Spanish?
Carlos: “Recuerdo una vez”.
Natalia: Excellent. Now you can give us how we heard it in the conversation.
Carlos: “Sólo recuerde traer su currículo”.
Natalia: “Currículo”.
Carlos: “Currículo”.
Natalia: “Just remember to bring your resume.”
Carlos: Can we think of a related word?
Natalia: “Rememorar”, which also means “to remember”, “to recall.”
Carlos: And provided us with an example sentence.
Natalia: We can move on. You see, next up, our last word of the day.
Carlos: Which is...
Natalia: “Pedir”, a verb.
Carlos: Nice, a very important one.
Natalia: What does it mean?
Carlos: It means “to ask for.”
Natalia: Like in our conversation...
Carlos: “Llamaba para pedir información sobre el trabajo”. “I was calling to request information about the job.”
Natalia: When was the last job interview you had?
Carlos: Couple of years ago when I interviewed at the New York City Board of Education.
Natalia: How did you get the job?
Carlos: I actually got hooked up for the job. That’s the one I know.
Natalia: Okay. Once again, it’s not what you know, it’s who you know but well Carlos, how did you got this job?
Carlos: Once again somebody I knew.
Natalia: Okay, I am noticing a pattern here.
Carlos: Well, I know of another pattern. What is the related word to “pedir”?
Natalia: “Solicitar”.
Carlos: “To solicit.”
Natalia: Actually it also means “to ask for.”
Carlos: “Solicit” could mean the same thing.
Natalia: Who is fluent to the Spanish and in English.
Carlos: Okay, okay, okay…
Natalia: Okay, okay, okay. So today we are working with “adjetivos”.
Carlos: “Adjectives.” Always a good subject to touch upon now and then.
Natalia: What do we remember about adjectives?
Carlos: Well, I remember that adjectives are modifiers.
Natalia: Meaning what?
Carlos: That means that adjectives shape the meanings of a noun.
Natalia: How?
Carlos: By describing the characteristics.
Natalia: Correct. Here is an example, “asistencia médica”.
Carlos: “Medical assistance.” Now if I remember correctly, in Spanish there is a fairly well established set of rules for adjectives, right?
Natalia: Do you remember what they are?
Carlos: Well, I remember a couple of aspects agreement and placement.
Natalia: So where did we see an adjective in the conversation.
Carlos: “Vi su aviso en el periódico que ocupaban empleados nuevos”.
Natalia: “I saw your notice in the newspaper that you are looking for new employees.” So what do you notice?
Carlos: I noticed that we have agreement “empleados nuevos”, “new employees”, plural.
Natalia: And what it would have been if it was singular?
Carlos: Well, if it was singular, it would have been “empleado nuevo”, “new employee.”
Natalia: Right. So we see that the adjective must agree with the noun that it’s modified.
Carlos: And we can tell the number of the adjectives by looking at the end of the word.
Natalia: And what do you call that again?
Carlos: We call that inflection but I remember that there is something else we can tell from the end of the word.
Natalia: And that is...
Carlos: Well, that will be gender, “profe”, and I will jump from that point to the point that adjectives can be either masculine or feminine depending on the noun.
Natalia: And where is the placement?
Carlos: Adjectives are normally placed after the noun they modify.
Natalia: Good. So in the example, “la asistencia médica aquí es siempre muy buena”, notice that the adjective “médica” comes after the noun which it modifies “asistencia”.
Carlos: So that shows what you can call normal placement. You know, I assume there are exceptions to the rule.
Natalia: Definitely. The exception is when we want to place more emphasis on the characteristic being attributed to the meaning of the noun and to the meaning of the noun itself.
Carlos: I want you to put it like that.
Natalia: Well, let’s look at the normal endings for adjectives that have a number and gender.
Carlos: Okay, let’s take the first example “asistencia médica”.
Natalia: “Medical assistance.”
Carlos: I think that makes things clear. How about some example sentences?
Natalia: “¿Has visto mi camisa roja?”
Carlos: “Have you seen my red shirt?”
Natalia: “La asistencia médica aquí es siempre muy buena”.
Carlos: “The medical attention here is always very good.”
Natalia: “Ha sido una noche larga”.
Carlos: “It has been a long night.”
Natalia: “Nunca recibo tus correos electrónicos. No sé qué pasa”.
Carlos: “I never receive your emails. I don’t know what the deal is.”
Natalia: See how the rules apply?
Carlos: Oh, definitely.
Natalia: Once you learn to recognize the gender and number of nouns, using the adjectives is pretty easy since all we need to do is make sure that they agree with each other.
Carlos: But I do know that we still make sense on that. I know I do.
Natalia: “Concordancia”, “agreement”, “concordance.” It comes with practice and mistakes will happen especially since the system is not perfect.
Carlos: What do you mean?
Natalia: There are plenty of exceptions to the rule and those make things a little difficult.
Carlos: Do you have an example?
Natalia: For example, adjectives like “verde”, “green”, and “sonriente”, “smiley” and “e” in the singular and “es” in plural.
Carlos: So then.
Natalia: So one of these two forms is used despite the gender of the noun it’s modifying. So we would say “los niños sonrientes”, “the smiley boys”, as well as “las niñas sonrientes”, “the smiley girls.”
Carlos: So it doesn’t change?
Natalia: Not at all but there is something else.
Carlos: It always is.
Natalia: We should mention the issue of mixed genders.
Carlos: Mixed genders.
Natalia: Yes, mixed genders for sample plural nouns that contain masculine and feminine characteristics.
Carlos: Like what?
Natalia: Here since “platos” is masculine and plural and since “tazas” is feminine and plural, the adjective “sucios” masculine and plural is used.
Carlos: Why?
Natalia: This is because the masculine characteristic is said to dominate over the feminine characteristic in a group of mixed gender nouns.
Carlos: I am not even going to comment.
Natalia: Don’t. Well, there before the masculine “O” ending is used when the adjective describes a group of both, masculine and feminine nouns.
Carlos: I see.
Natalia: In terms of their usage, adjectives are also known in Spanish to be used as a form of address.
Carlos: What do you mean?
Natalia: Sometimes you call this the vocative. For example if I say “Martín, escúchame”. “Martín, listen to me.” The name Martín is a form of address or the noun in the vocative.
Carlos: I think I see.
Natalia: Sometimes this noun gets replaced by an adjective which assumes the quality of a noun. Linguists sometime will call it “la sustantivación del adjetivo”.
Carlos: Man, you are getting really technical today.
Natalia: Well, you see for instance to flatter a woman, one might say “Hola, linda”, “hi beautiful” or to complain “¡Apúrate flojo!”, “hurry up lazy”, or to show affection often in the diminutive “Ven acá, mi gordito”, “come here my chunky monkey.”
Carlos: Chunky monkey.
Natalia: Chunky monkey but I had some ice cream the other day.


Carlos: Naty loves Ben &Jerry’s. You know what, that just about does it for today.
Carlos: All right.
Natalia: ¡Nos vemos!
Carlos: ¡Chao!


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