Learn New Words FAST with this Lesson’s Vocab Review List

Get this lesson’s key vocab, their translations and pronunciations. Sign up for your Free Lifetime Account Now and get 7 Days of Premium Access including this feature.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Notes

Unlock In-Depth Explanations & Exclusive Takeaways with Printable Lesson Notes

Unlock Lesson Notes and Transcripts for every single lesson. Sign Up for a Free Lifetime Account and Get 7 Days of Premium Access.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Transcript

Natalia: Buenos días me llamo Natalia.
Carlos: What’s going on? My name is Carlos. Newbie series, season 2, Lesson #22.
Natalia: Look who is talking? Hello everyone. I am Natalia and welcome to Spanishpod101.com
Carlos: You know, with us, you will learn to speak Spanish with fun and effective lessons.
Natalia: We also provide you with cultural insights
Carlos: That you simply will not find in a textbook. Man, you know Natie, people can be so judgmental.
Natalia: That is generally true but why do you mention it?
Carlos: Well in today’s conversation, some friends are commenting about another’s weight.
Natalia: Well you never know. I mean if they are just saying anything to her directly. Are they?
Carlos: No the conversation is between Olivia and Carla. Is chilling informal.
Natalia: Well you know gossip is a form of bonding they say.
Carlos: Yeah you know, I’ve heard that but do we have to do it?
Natalia: Some would say we are obligated. Well you know, check my grammar point hint.
Carlos: Let’s listen to the conversation.
CARLA: ¡Qué buena está la comida aquí!
OLIVIA: Sí, pero hay que mantener la dieta, no como otras.
CARLA: ¿De qué hablas?
OLIVIA : ¿No has visto a Miriam? ...¡es gigante!.
CARLA: ¿Quién habla? ¿No fuiste tú la que acaba de chuparse los dedos?
OLIVIA: ¡Qué maluca eres! Además, la comida estuvo mortal.
Carlos: And now slower. Una vez más esta vez lentamente.
CARLA: ¡Qué buena está la comida aquí!
OLIVIA: Sí, pero hay que mantener la dieta, no como otras.
CARLA: ¿De qué hablas?
OLIVIA : ¿No has visto a Miriam? ...¡es gigante!.
CARLA: ¿Quién habla? ¿No fuiste tú la que acaba de chuparse los dedos?
OLIVIA: ¡Qué maluca eres! Además, la comida estuvo mortal.
Carlos: And now with the translation. Ahora incluiremos la traducción.
CARLA: ¡Qué buena está la comida aquí!
CARLA: The food is here is great!
OLIVIA: Sí, pero hay que mantener la dieta, no como otras.
OLIVIA: Yeah, but we have to watch what we eat, unlike others.
CARLA: ¿De qué hablas?
CARLA: What are you talking about?
OLIVIA : ¿No has visto a Miriam? ...¡es gigante!.
OLIVIA: Have you seen Miriam?... she is gigantic!
CARLA: ¿Quién habla? ¿No fuiste tú la que acaba de chuparse los dedos?
CARLA: Who's talking? Wasn't that you who just finished licking her fingers?
OLIVIA: ¡Qué maluca eres! Además, la comida estuvo mortal.
OLIVIA: You're so bad! What's more, the food was to die for.
Natalia: That is mean Carlos. You are right.
Carlos: That is mean right?
Natalia: That is not quite gossip you know saying somebody is gigantic.
Carlos: Gigantic. Who licks their fingers in public?
Natalia: A lot of people.
Carlos: That’s kind of disgusting.
Natalia: I know.
Carlos: Alright. Let’s take a look at the vocabulary for today’s lesson. Empezamos con un sustantivo femenino.
Natalia: comida
Carlos: Lunch, food, meal.
Natalia: co-mi-da, comida
Carlos: Natie, como por ejemplo.
Natalia: Espero que aprovechen la comida.
Carlos: I hope you enjoyed the meal.
Natalia: gigante
Carlos: Gigantic.
Natalia: gi-gan-te, gigante
Carlos: Y un ejemplo sería.
Natalia: ¡Oyé eres gigante! ¿Qué ya no haces ejercicio?
Carlos: Hey you are gigantic. What? Don’t you exercise anymore? Y ahora estudiaremos una frase verbal.
Natalia: acabar de
Carlos: To have just
Natalia: a-ca-bar de, acabar de
Carlos: ¿Cómo por ejemplo, Natie?
Natalia: Ella acaba de comprar nuevos anteojos.
Carlos: She has just bought new glasses. A continuación tenemos el adverbio.
Natalia: además
Carlos: Moreover and yet.
Natalia: a-de-más, además
Carlos: Y un ejemplo sería.
Natalia: Y además el carro no es mío por eso no te lo puedo prestar.
Carlos: And what’s more, the car isn’t mine. That’s why I can’t lend it to you. La proxima palabra es un adjetivo.
Natalia: mortal
Carlos: Mortal, to die for.
Natalia: mor-tal, mortal
Carlos: A ver un ejemplo.
Natalia: Tu torta de chocolate está mortal, mejor no puede ser.
Carlos: Your chocolate cake is to die for. It doesn’t get any better than this. Y la última palabra de hoy es otro adjetivo o sustantivo masculino o femenino.
Natalia: maluco, maluca
Carlos: Bad
Natalia: ma-lu-co, ma-lu-ca, maluco, maluca
Carlos: Como por ejemplo.
Natalia: No seas maluco te hablo enserio.
Carlos: Don’t be bad. I am speaking seriously. Okay let’s have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Natalia: The first word/phrase we will look at is gigante.
Carlos: Gigantic, huge like Sábado Gigante.
Natalia: Right. So it is describing a noun. So it is
Carlos: An adjective.
Natalia: I know you have an example.
Carlos: Esta noche en Sábado Gigante.
Natalia: Tonight on Sabado Gigante. How do you know about that show?
Carlos: You kidding me. Saturday nights at my grandmother’s house. She always had it on.
Natalia: My grandma always had it on too but well you know, check the use in today’s conversation. ¿No has visto a Miriam? ...¡es gigante!.
Carlos: Have you seen Miriam. She is gigantic. Well that’s so mean.
Natalia: Or just an observation you know. Here is another word to learn.
Carlos: Which?
Natalia: The adjective gigantesco, ginormous.
Carlos: Ginormous?
Natalia: Uhoo.
Carlos: That’s funny. You know, she is ginormous. Next up.
Natalia: Acabar de. To have just done something.
Carlos: A verbal phrase.
Natalia: Yep. Here it is being used with another verb in the infinitive.
Carlos: No doubt. ¿Ejemplo?
Natalia: Acabar de hacer algo.
Carlos: To have just done something. I see how it was used in today’s conversation.
Natalia: ¿No fuiste tú la que acaba de chuparse los dedos?
Carlos: Wasn’t that you who just finished licking her fingers. Uhoo good comeback.
Natalia: We have a reflexive verb related to this. Acabarse means to finish something off or to come to an end. It gets off the news idiomatically. So if you say se acabo it means that’s it. Say goodbye.
Carlos: You know, I always like the song by the Beatnuts.
Natalia: Okay let’s look at an adverb.
Carlos: Sure which?
Natalia: Además: moreover, what’s more, still, yet, nevertheless.
Carlos: You know I’ve heard that before. What kind of example do you have?
Natalia: Es guapa y además inteligente.
Carlos: She is beautiful and clever too. Next example.
Natalia: That’s one that should be learned for sure.
Carlos: Okay. What about in today’s convo, Natie?
Natalia: Además, la comida estuvo mortal.
Carlos: What’s more? The food was to die for!
Natalia: Además is pretty much synonymous with aparte de esto, aside from this. La proxima es mortal.
Carlos: And that would mean mortal. Wouldn’t it?
Natalia: It’s pretty easy Carlos but this adjective also means to die for.
Carlos: Right. You know, I wondered about that from the example from the conversation.
Natalia: Carlos, we have other words that are really delicious.
Carlos: Like what?
Natalia: For example exquisito, espléndido, deliciosos, riquisimo... More or less, I can go on and on. Let me ask you a question.
Carlos: Sure.
Natalia: How does the word maloco sound to you?
Carlos: Not good.
Natalia: Yeah you can tell by the sound of it.
Carlos: So what does it mean?
Natalia: It’s an adjective that means bad, ingrate, ungracious.
Carlos: Ingrate, I usually use that a lot. You know.
Natalia: I use ingrate a lot.
Carlos: Yeah none of those things sound good but now that I think about it, I have heard the word used in Peru. Is it used in Costa Rica? What are some of the ways to say bad?
Natalia: Mala gente. In Costa Rica, we don’t really use maluco. Now few people use it like absolutely everybody uses mala gente. It’s the term that very, very often used.
Carlos: And wait Natie, how was maluca used in the conversation.
Natalia: It was when we heard: ¡Qué maluca eres! Además, la comida estuvo mortal.
Carlos: You are so bad. What’s more? The food was to die for.

Lesson focus

Natalia: Today, we are going to discuss how obligation can be expressed.
Carlos: Right on. How many ways can it be expressed?
Natalia: In Spanish, obligation can be expressed either personally or impersonally.
Carlos: That sounds easy enough.
Natalia: One of the ways to express obligation is to use the verb tener to have. Think of these as a formation along the same lines as to express obligation in English.
Carlos: So tener plus que expresses obligation.
Natalia: Right we can also express impersonal obligation with a verb haber using it as a verb of existence in a periphrastic construction. When we say something like hay que pagar one must pay, we are expressing an impersonal obligation because a particular person who must pay is not specified.
Carlos: Okay so specific person, personal, non-specified person, impersonal. You know, when I think about it, that does make sense.
Natalia: Oho here is the formation for personal obligation as you said before. The tener plus que but you are missing something.
Carlos: What’s that?
Natalia: The infinitive form of the verb in question.
Carlos: Okay so the complete formula is tener plus que plus infinitivo del verbo. To have plus to plus infinitive. Okay so how about some examples Natie?
Natalia: Yo tengo que salir.
Carlos: I have to go out.
Natalia: Or tenemos que comprar leche.
Carlos: We have to buy milk. So I see tener is the verb that’s conjugated.
Natalia: Exactly.
Carlos: Now what about the formation of impersonal obligation.
Natalia: Well I gave you the verb haber. So you take a crack on it.
Carlos: Okay I plus que plus infinitivo del verbo. One must plus infinitive of verb.
Natalia: Hey that’s a good work you see.
Carlos: Well thank you Natie. Now it’s your time for some examples.
Natalia: Hay que tener paciencia.
Carlos: One must have patience.
Natalia: Or hay que estudiar para graduarse.
Carlos: One must study in order to graduate or learn Spanish for that matter.
Natalia: Here is something that we should mention when talking about the past obligation, we conjugate the verb tener to have in the imperfect past tense.
Carlos: Now does that affect the structure.
Natalia: The structure is the same.
Carlos: Okay what about impersonal obligation.
Natalia: Well there is no direct way to translate impersonal expressions of obligation since the verb haber usually means there is or there are. Often when we translate impersonal expressions of vacation from Spanish to English, they become personal.


Carlos: I will make sure to make extra notes for that. Well you know what, that just about does it for today. Okay you know what, some of our listeners already know about the most powerful tool on the spanishpod101.com arsenal.
Natalia: Line by line audio.
Carlos: The perfect tool for rapidly improving listening comprehension.
Natalia: By listening to lines of the conversation again and again.
Carlos: Listen until every word and syllable becomes clear. Basically we break down the dialogue into comprehensible bite size sentences.
Natalia: You can try the line by line audio in the premium learning center at spanishpod101.com
Carlos: Alright. That really just about does it for today. Nos vemos.
Natalia: Chao!


Spanish Grammar Made Easy - Unlock This Lesson’s Grammar Guide

Easily master this lesson’s grammar points with in-depth explanations and examples. Sign up for your Free Lifetime Account and get 7 Days of Premium Access including this feature.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Dialog - Bilingual



Please to leave a comment.
😄 😞 😳 😁 😒 😎 😠 😆 😅 😜 😉 😭 😇 😴 😮 😈 ❤️️ 👍

SpanishPod101.com Verified
Monday at 06:30 PM
Pinned Comment
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Thanks to Herman Pearl for the music in today’s lesson! So what do you think? Can gossip be considered a form of bonding?

Sunday at 08:17 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hi Mona,

Thanks for the thumbs-up!

Feel free to let us know if you have any questions.



Team SpanishPod101.com

Saturday at 02:56 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.


SpanishPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 12:26 PM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hola Frank,

Thank you for your comments.

No, the meaning of "aprovechar" can be used as something positive o negative. It would depend on the context.

The other words for delicioso is sabroso, exquisito, rico, gustoso, bueno, apetitoso, suculento.

Sigamos practicando!



Team SpanishPod101.com

SpanishPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 11:37 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Hello Frank,

Thank you for posting.

Our native staff will get back to you regarding the language usage you asked about.

Regarding the vocabulary (delicious), I could find entries in our dictionary:


Please check. 👍



Team SpanishPod101.com

Frank R Timmons
Saturday at 02:32 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Whoops! I think I forgot to push the submit button when I expressed my appreciation for the extra vocabulary that Natalie adds; I also asked a question about other words that mean delicious. I could not fin excucito or escucito in the dictionary or esplendio. Maybe I am misspelling them. Would you please send them written in Spanish. Thanks! Frank

Frank R Timmons
Saturday at 02:27 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Oh, sorry: one more follow-up pregunta: When I looked up aprovechar, the only meanings it gave had to do with taking advantage of a situation or making the most of it, making good use of, taking the opportunity to, etc.; it did not seem to relate to enjoy per se. Is that usage particular to Costa Rica or is it a common translation in MX, Spain, and in other countries as well? Is disfrutar more common? Thanks again! Frank

Tuesday at 07:37 AM
Your comment is awaiting moderation.

Of course it can! Think about it. It's like talking smack about the boss. We are together against them! I know that I have a friend when we can gossip about something. There is a form of intimacy there, intimacy and plenty of laughs!

Don't get me wrong...I don't think gossiping should be over done but you know...everything in moderation! :twisted::roll: