Learn New Words FAST with this Lesson’s Vocab Review List

Get this lesson’s key vocab, their translations and pronunciations. Sign up for your Free Lifetime Account Now and get 7 Days of Premium Access including this feature.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Notes

Unlock In-Depth Explanations & Exclusive Takeaways with Printable Lesson Notes

Unlock Lesson Notes and Transcripts for every single lesson. Sign Up for a Free Lifetime Account and Get 7 Days of Premium Access.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Lesson Transcript

Natalia: Buenos días, me llamo Natalia.
Carlos: What’s going on? My name is Carlos.
Natalia: “Give me one of each.” Hello everyone I’m Natalia and welcome to Spanish Pod 101.
Carlos: That’s right and with us you’ll learn how to speak Spanish with fun and effective lessons.
Natalia: We also provide you with cultural insights...
Carlos: And tips that you really won’t find in a text book. Naty, guess what?
Natalia: What?
Carlos: I went to the “feria” last weekend.
Natalia: The farmer’s market?
Carlos: Yeah, it was awesome in and I seriously went in with a handful of change and came out with mad fruit and vegetables.
Natalia: Hey you are buying direct from the farmer. That’s why it’s so great.
Carlos: I mean today’s conversation finds a tourist, like me, buying fruit from a vendor but he wants to buy a little bit of everything.
Natalia: Carlos, you are not a tourist anymore. Well, you know that’s dangerous when you go buying a bunch of fruit.
Carlos: Well, you know the vendor warns him and probably out of appreciation that the tourist addressed him formally and with respect.
Natalia: Yeah, some people can get very upset if you don’t address them correctly.
Carlos: Let’s get into today’s conversation.
FRUTERA: Hola gringo, ¿quiere un mamón?
GRINGO: ¿Un mamón? A ver... bueno, sí, quiero probarlo... pero, ¿qué más tiene?
FRUTERA: ¡Tengo muchísima fruta! Granadillas, carambola, guanábana, guava, higo, tamarindo, anonas y hasta marañones si quiere.
GRINGO: Ehh... ¿cómo?.. deme una de cada una.
FRUTERA: Pero, cuidadito con el estómago…
GRINGO: La como poco a poco, quiero probar todos los tipos que pueda, voy a estar muy poco tiempo en el país.
FRUIT VENDOR: Hey there, Gringo, do you want a Spanish lime?
GRINGO: A Spanish lime? Let's see...well, okay, I'll give it a shot...but, what else do you have?
FRUIT VENDOR: I have lots of fruit! Passion fruit, star fruit, guanabana, guava, figs, tamarind, soursop, even cashew fruit, if you want.
GRINGO: What? …Give me one of each.
FRUIT VENDOR: But, you had better be careful with your stomach…
GRINGO: I'll eat it little by little. I want to try as much as I can since I'll be in the country for a short time.
Natalia: Carlos, you know you have to wake up at five in the morning if you are going to go the “feria”.
Carlos: What are you talking about? I woke up at like seven.
Natalia: But you know it’s good when you’ve like…people usually wake up super early to get the fresh, fresh fruit. And usually when you go like at ten am, nine am you don’t get the best quality.
Carlos: Hmm.
Natalia: Because in five in the morning they are unpacking all their stuff so you get the best.
Carlos: Maybe I should try that out on a Saturday.
Natalia: Go for it.
Carlos: That’s going to be good. Actually let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson. First up we have an adverbial locution of time.
Natalia: “Poco a poco”.
Carlos: “Little by little.”
Natalia: “Po-co a po-co”, “poco a poco”.
Carlos: Naty, can we have a sample sentence?
Natalia: “Tienes que tomar la medicina poco a poco”.
Carlos: “You have to take the medicine little by little.” Next up an adjective.
Natalia: “Cada”.
Carlos: “Each, “every”.
Natalia: “Ca-da”, “cada”.
Carlos: Naty, por ejemplo...
Natalia: “Cada día es más frío”.
Carlos: “Each day is colder.” Next up we have another verb.
Natalia: “Probar”.
Carlos: “To prove”, “to test”, “to try.”
Natalia: “Pro-bar”, “probar”.
Carlos: Naty, you have another example sentence for us?
Natalia: “Prueba el estofado a ver si está bien de sal”.
Carlos: “Taste the stew for salt.” Next up, a preposition.
Natalia: “Hasta”.
Carlos: “Until”, “up to”.
Natalia: “Has-ta”, “hasta”.
Carlos: Como por ejemplo...
Natalia: “Pasé la tarde en un café con una amiga hasta las siete y luego regresé a mi casa”.
Carlos: “I spent the afternoon in a café with a friend until seven and then I returned home.” Next up we have a masculine and feminine noun.
Natalia: “Tipo, tipa”.
Carlos: “Kind”, “type”.
Natalia: “Ti-po, ti-pa”, “tipo, tipa”.
Carlos: Naty, do you have another example sentence for us?
Natalia: “Es un tipo de manzana”.
Carlos: “It’s a kind of apple.” And last but not least, a verb.
Natalia: “Tener”.
Carlos: “To have.”
Natalia: “Te-ner”, “tener”.
Carlos: Last but not least do you have an example for us?
Natalia: “Ella tiene amigas”.
Carlos: “She has girlfriends.” “Pasé la tarde en un café con una amiga hasta las siete y luego regresé a casa”.
Natalia: That’s okay. You have to talk a little slower though because you know…the thing is that…with your accent if you say that slower for a person that has never heard you before it’s easier like if you go, “Pasé la tarde en un café con una amiga hasta las siete y luego regresé a casa”.
Carlos: True, I’ll take that into consideration, Naty. I do talk kind of fast. Well, you know what? Let’s have a closer look at the usage for some the words and phrases from this lesson.
Natalia: The first word phrase we’ll look at is “poco a poco”.
Carlos: Eh! What do we call this again?
Natalia: Well, this is called an adverbial locution of time.
Carlos: Yes…that. So what does this mean?
Natalia: I’ll tell you the best way to put “poco a poco” is “little by little”.
Carlos: Okay, but can we have a definition in Spanish?
Natalia: “Poco a poco es tomar las cosas al suave”.
Carlos: Okay, that works. That makes a lot of sense.
Natalia: Bueno, Carlos. More or less you know again it’s little by little.
Carlos: Makes sense.
Natalia: It’s so easy to remember.
Carlos: Makes sense. “Poco a poco”, “little by little.”
Natalia: How else is it used in the conversation?
Carlos: “La como poco a poco”, “I eat little by little.” Shoot with all the fruit in the gringo stomach, it doesn’t matter how little by little he eats. It’s all coming out together.
Natalia: Carlos, don’t be disgusting! That makes me sick. Another similar phrase that you might be familiar with, “mas o menos”.
Carlos: “More or less.” I get it, “poco a poco”, “más o menos”. Good ones to learn. You know it’s like what’s next on our list.
Natalia: We have an adjective, “cada”.
Carlos: “Each”, “every.” Like “a cada quien lo suyo”.
Natalia: “To each their own.”
Carlos: Now we know it’s an adjective but how do we define “cada”?
Natalia: ¿Inglés o español?
Carlos: Naty, do I even have to answer that?
Natalia: “Para establecer correspondencia distributiva entre los miembros numerables de una serie cuyo nombre singular precede y los miembros de otra”.
Carlos: But wait. In our conversation…
Natalia: “Deme una de cada una”.
Carlos: “Give me one of each.” You know this dude is ambitious. You know I remember this one time when I ate all this fruit and man I just…
Natalia: Carlos! People don’t want to hear that.
Carlos: How do you know? They might want to hear it.
Natalia: Moving on. If they want to hear it they’ll leave a comment saying, “Carlos, what happened when you ate all that fruit?” You’ll see no one wants to hear that. Well, I say we go for the verb “probar”.
Carlos: “To prove”, “to test”, “to try.”
Natalia: Like “Carlos, ¡¿qué?! ¿no has probado la papaya?”
Carlos: Well, “Carlos what? You haven’t tried papaya?” You know what, Naty? I have and it’s a funny story because papaya and milk settles your stomach and….
Natalia: Carlos here is the definition of “probar”, “hacer examen y experimento de las cualidades de alguien o algo”.
Carlos: When in our conversation “bueno, sí, quiero probarlo…” “Well, okay I’ll give it a shot.” You know this is a handy verb to know when you want to experiment.
Natalia: Don’t experiment too much but try this preposition, “hasta”.
Carlos: “Until” or “up to.” Yea, “hasta”. I learned this one, like when my friends asked me to go out after work and I say, “tengo que trabajar hasta las diez”, “I have to work until 10 right?”
Natalia: Yes, that’s one of the ways to use it, in our conversation it was used like this, “anonas y hasta marañones si quieres”.
Carlos: “Even cashew fruit if you want.” That doesn’t correspond.
Natalia: Well, think of the meaning. You could understand it in English, we have everything, apples, oranges up to bananas.
Carlos: You know what? That does make sense.
Natalia: Listen to the definition and it will make more sense. “Denota el término de tiempo, acciones o cantidades”.
Carlos: When you are right you are right, Naty.
Natalia: Am right. Right, I know.
Carlos: It makes more sense now.
Natalia: Remember Carlos, look at the meaning not the word to word translation.
Carlos: Yes, Naty.
Natalia: Look at the whole picture.
Carlos: What’s next?
Natalia: A noun.
Carlos: Which?
Natalia: “Tipo, tipa”.
Carlos: A muscular noun meaning “kind” or “type.”
Natalia: Yes, o “modelo”, “modelo ejemplar”. How is it used in a conversation?
Carlos: “Quiero probar todos los tipos que pueda”. “I want to try as much as I can.”
Natalia: Well, how else can we use it?
Carlos: ¿Qué tipo de pregunta es esta? What kind of question is this?
Natalia: A direct one, Carlos. And last but not least we have a verb.
Carlos: Which?
Natalia: “Tener”.
Carlos: Ah! Good old “tener”. “To have.”
Natalia: “Tener o haber tenido algo”.
Carlos: Okay and in a conversation, the fruit seller who was screaming out, “¡Tengo muchísima fruta! ”. “I got lots of fruit!”
Natalia: Or “ten paciencia conmigo”..
Carlos: “Have patience with me.” That’s all I have now people.
Natalia: Carlos. Carlos, it’s imperative that you understand today’s grammar points.

Lesson focus

Carlos: Nice lead into the imperative mood.
Natalia: Ah! You got the hint.
Carlos: I did.
Natalia: So what’s the imperative mood?
Carlos: The imperative mood is the way of expressing the speaker’s attitude towards an action.
Natalia: Nice. But there is more.
Carlos: You didn’t let me finish.
Natalia: Finish!
Carlos: It expresses the will to influence the behavior of another by way of a command, an entreaty or expectation.
Natalia: Nice definition.
Carlos: Thanks. You know, grammar bank.
Natalia: You’re using the word command to sound like they could be rude.
Carlos: Oh definitely, but actually they are often expressed in a polite manner, aren’t they?
Natalia: Only when we want them to be.
Carlos: How about an example?
Natalia: The verb “dar”.
Carlos: A good choice, “to give.” Like in our conversation the gringo says, “Deme una de cada una”, “Give me one of each.” You know he didn’t sound rude but it was still a command.
Natalia: Right. So if I wanted to use the imperative mood with the “-ar” verb, “dar”, how would I address you informally?
Carlos: “Da”.
Natalia: Formally?
Carlos: “Dé”.
Natalia: So is the gringo addressing the fruit vender formally or informally?
Carlos: That would be formally, at least he has some respect.
Natalia: You spent some time in Spain, right?
Carlos: Yes, I did.
Natalia: So if I’m addressing you in Spain?
Carlos: That would be “dar”.
Natalia: Now you live in Latin America.
Carlos: That’s right.
Natalia: So how will we address you all in Latin America?
Carlos: “Den”.
Natalia: I know we’ve said it before but we should remind everyone that the “vosotros” form is not used in Latin America.
Carlos: Right, but that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t learn it.
Natalia: Exactly with “vosotros” the informal and formal plural “de ustedes”, “you all”, “en” form is used for imperative moods of “ar” verbs. For example, “Martín, Ernesto, denme dos segundos”.
Carlos: “Martín, Ernesto, gave me two seconds.” Well, you know since you started how about some other example sentences with “dar” and the imperative mood?
Natalia: Hmm! “Deme uno de cada uno”.
Carlos: Okay, “give me one of each.”
Natalia: “Dame las llaves y te las devuelvo después”.
Carlos: “Give me the keys and I’ll give them back to you later.”
Natalia: “Oigan, chicos, denme una hora y me encuentro ahí con ustedes”.
Carlos: “Hey guys give me an hour and I’ll meet up with you there.” That was a good choice there, Naty.
Natalia: Well yes, one of those verbs that lands itself on top of “dar”, well you know our audience should be familiar with it.


Carlos: You hear that audience, be familiar. You know what? That just about does it for today.
Natalia: ¡Chao!
Carlos: ¡Hasta luego!


Spanish Grammar Made Easy - Unlock This Lesson’s Grammar Guide

Easily master this lesson’s grammar points with in-depth explanations and examples. Sign up for your Free Lifetime Account and get 7 Days of Premium Access including this feature.

Or sign up using Facebook
Already a Member?

Dialog - Bilingual