Dialogue

Vocabulary

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Dylan: Hola, hola amigos. Habla Dylan, ¿cómo están?
Carlos: What’s going on pod101 world? My name is Carlos. Beginner series, season 4, lesson #9. “Does Your Spanish Always Know Best?” Hello and welcome back to spanishpod101.com, the fastest, easiest and most fun way to learn Spanish. I am joined in the studio by...
Dylan: Hello everybody. Dylan here.
Carlos: In this lesson, you will learn about the imperative mood.
Dylan: This conversation takes place on a phone.
Carlos: The conversation is between Fernanda and her grandmother.
Dylan: The speakers are friends and are speaking informally.
Carlos: Now before we listen to the conversation...
Dylan: We want to ask...
Carlos: Do you read the lesson notes while you listen?
Dylan: We received an email about the study tip.
Carlos: So we were wondering if you tried it and if so...
Dylan: What do you think of it?
Carlos: You can leave us feedback in the comments section of this lesson. Okay, let’s listen to the conversation. Now wait a minute! I don’t understand that. She says “these men” but her boyfriend was right.
DIALOGUE
Abuela: ¡¡¡¡Aló!!!
Fernanda: Abuelita, soy yo de nuevo.
Abuela: Hola amor, ¿cómo te quedaron los chiles rellenos?
Fernanda: No están listos todavía, lo que pasa es que el incrédulo de mi novio, dice que yo no sé cómo hacer chiles rellenos. ¿Verdad que la carne se pone cruda adentro del chile?
Abuela: Ajaja, amor, ¡no me digas! ¡Estos hombres! ¡Ahhy, estos hombres! Fernandita, pero antes de poner la carne en los chiles, debes cocinar la carne en agua, y también debes asar los chiles para poder quitarles las cáscaras.
Fernanda: ¡Ahhhh!, ya veo abue.
Abuela: Hello!!!
Fernanda: Grandma, it’s me again.
Abuela: Hello, love, how did the “Chile Rellenos” turn out?
Fernanda: They’re not ready yet, what’s happening is that my disbelieving boyfriend says that I don’t know how to make chile rellenos…I put the raw meat inside the chiles, right?
Abuela: Hahaha, love. No kidding! Those men! Ahh! Those men! Fernandita, but before you put the meat in the peppers, you must cook the meat in water and also grill the peppers so that you can take off the skin.
Fernanda: Ahhhh! I see, Granny.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Dylan: Yes, but it’s the fact that he was – that he brought it to our attention.
Carlos: Or questioning and I guess questioning…
Dylan: Yeah.
Carlos: I will say any kind of woman actually when they are cooking – especially when cooking for you, it would not be a good idea.
Dylan: Yes, don’t question, just eat it.
Carlos: And then making her call her grandmother to be verified.
Dylan: Yeah, that’s just not right.
Carlos: Keep in mind pod101 world. This is not a very good thing to do. If a Latina cooks you something, eat it.
Dylan: Eat.
Carlos: Okay guys, let’s have a closer look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
VOCAB LIST
Dylan: “Nuevo, nueva”.
Carlos: “New.”
Dylan: “Nue-vo, nue-va”, “nuevo, nueva”. “Listo, lista”.
Carlos: “Ready.”
Dylan: “Lis-to, lis-ta”, “listo, lista”. “Todavía”.
Carlos: “Yet”, “still.”
Dylan: “To-da-ví-a”, “todavía”. “Incrédulo”.
Carlos: “Incredulous”, “doubtful”, “unbelievable.”
Dylan: “In-cré-du-lo”, “incrédulo”. “Asar”.
Carlos: “To roast”, “to grill.”
Dylan: “A-sar”, “asar”. “Cáscara”.
Carlos: “Peel”, “shell”, “skin.”
Dylan: “Cás-ca-ra”, “cáscara”.
VOCAB AND PHRASE USAGE
Carlos: Okay guys, let’s have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Dylan: The first word we will look at is “nuevo, nueva”.
Carlos: Always a nice adjective. Everybody likes something new.
Dylan: Well, there are a couple of things I think of that I wouldn’t want new.
Carlos: Like what?
Dylan: Like a new cold.
Carlos: Touché.
Dylan: But we have an interesting translation issue with our example from the conversation.
Carlos: Enlighten me.
Dylan: Well, in our conversation, Fernanda says “abuelita, soy yo de nuevo”.
Carlos: “Grandma, it’s me again”.
Dylan: See there is a small translation flex there. So we know that the adjective “nuevo” means “new” but we wouldn’t say “Grandma, it’s I new.”
Carlos: Yeah, that would just sound weird.
Dylan: But give me a more common example.
Carlos: Well, a more common example would be umm… Okay, I got one, “Este es el nuevo carro de Miguel”.
Dylan: “This is Miguel’s new car.” Man, that is like the most common example given with “nuevo”.
Carlos: It is but you know what you are right but what can you do. When it works, it works.
Dylan: Okay, instead of “nuevo”, what is another expression that Fernanda could have used?
Carlos: “Otra vez”.
Dylan: “Again”, ready to move on?
Carlos: “Listo”.
Dylan: Perfect. An adjective that means...
Carlos: “Ready.”
Dylan: And here it is being applied to food when Fernanda says...
Carlos: “No están listos todavía”.
Dylan: “They are not ready yet.”
Carlos: Okay Dylan, “estoy listo para escuchar su opinión”.
Dylan: I should hope that you are ready to listen to my opinion. I am the native Spanish speaker here.
Carlos: Just try to put in an example sentence under the radar.
Dylan: Always a good way to do things. Okay, let’s think of a related word.
Carlos: “Preparar”, “to prepare.”
Dylan: I was thinking more along the lines of “alistar”, “to get ready.”
Carlos: I didn’t know that one but I think that is a better one too.
Dylan: “Todavía”?
Carlos: Oh, good one. You know, I am always confused by “todavía”. It’s one of those words that I feel like I should know already because I hear it all the time and yet it eludes me.
Dylan: Well, we already heard the example. Let’s go over it again.
Carlos: “No están listos todavía”.
Dylan: “They are not ready yet.”
Carlos: So it means “yet”?
Dylan: With the “todavía” we have an adverb of time that means “still” or “yet.”
Carlos: Ah, okay. Bueno, voy a intentarlo.
Dylan: Try with both translations “still” and “yet” just to make sure that it sticks.
Carlos: Okay. “Todavía no tengo el resultado del examen”.
Dylan: “I don’t have the test results yet”, good.
Carlos: “Manuel está enfermo todavía”.
Dylan: “Manuel is still sick”, there you go. Now do you got it?
Carlos: More than I did a minute ago, it works.
Dylan: But I will help you with the related word.
Carlos: Please do.
Dylan: Another adverb, “aún”.
Carlos: This is a fun word to say guys, “aún”, “aún”.
Dylan: Do you know what that means?
Carlos: “Aún”. No, what does it mean?
Dylan: It means “still”, “yet.”
Carlos: Okay, so it’s a synonym.
Dylan: Can’t get anything past you.
Carlos: I try not to let them happen.
Dylan: Okay, catch this next word, “incrédulo”.
Carlos: “Incrédulo”, “incredulous.”
Dylan: Carlos, I know some people who speak English who don’t know what that means.
Carlos: Okay, “disbelieving” or “doubtful.”
Dylan: Better. “Lo que pasa es que el incrédulo de mi novio…”
Carlos: “What’s happening is that my disbelieving boyfriend…”
Dylan: Doubt is a dangerous thing sometimes.
Carlos: Especially in this situation.
Dylan: ¿Sabes qué?
Carlos: ¿Qué?
Dylan: “Víctor es muy incrédulo y no creyó en la noticia”.
Carlos: “Victor is very incredulous and he didn’t believe the news.” You know I agree with not believing in everything on the news but believing nothing is taking a little far.
Dylan: I agree, “la incredulidad”.
Carlos: And what’s that?
Dylan: Say that three times fast.
Carlos: “Incredulididi…”, “Incredulo…” – I can’t do it once. Okay, “Incredu…” – can I hear it again?
Dylan: “Incredulidad”.
Carlos: “Incredulidad”.
Dylan: That means “incredulity.” The state of being unwilling or unable to believe something.
Carlos: Uh, not a good state to be in. Very close, completely got eyes closed.
Dylan: No, not at all.
Carlos: Next up.
Dylan: “Asar”.
Carlos: “Asar”. Wow! That’s a completely new verb for me.
Dylan: “Asar”. “To roast”, “to grill.” “Debes cocinar la carne en agua y también debes asar los chiles para poder quitarles las cáscaras”.
Carlos: “You must cook the meat in water and also grill the peppers so that you can take off the skin.” So what turns out that Sebastián was right.
Dylan: Hey yeah, but that doesn’t really matter. Being a sore winner or being someone who says “I told you so” will not gain him any points whatsoever.
Carlos: Well, you are right about that.
Dylan: Well, here is an example sentence so that it sinks in.
Carlos: Shoot.
Dylan: “A mi papá le gusta asar carne los domingos”.
Carlos: “My father likes to grill meat on Sundays.” You know Dylan, I want to buy a grill.
Dylan: Yeah, you should. Those cast iron ones are cheap.
Carlos: Yeah, you know and I saw that charcoal isn’t like cheap at all. It’s like USD2.
Dylan: But haven’t you ever heard of “carne asada”?
Carlos: All right. I have heard of “carne asada”, “grilled meat.” It just click, “asado”, “asar”.
Dylan: Last but not least a noun.
Carlos: What we got?
Dylan: “Cáscara”. “Shell”, “peel” but in this sense “skin.”
Carlos: It kind of sounds like “máscara”. “Para poder quitarles las cáscaras”.
Dylan: “So that you can take off the skin.”
Carlos: Yeah, you know, we wouldn’t necessarily peel or shell with a pepper but – and I will let you mention it grilling, it would make sense.
Dylan: Yes, it would.
Carlos: So I could say “la cáscara de la sandía es verde”.
Dylan: “Watermelon skin is green.” Yum, watermelon.
Carlos: I love watermelon but I never buy it because it’s a lot for one person.
Dylan: That’s true.
Carlos: Now what’s on our grammar plate for today?
LESSON FOCUS
Dylan: Today we focus on the imperative mood.
Carlos: Okay. A very important mood.
Dylan: Carlos, which form do we use when we give negative commands?
Carlos: So we use the subjunctive form for verbs when we give negative commands.
Dylan: Right. For regular verbs, conjugating in the subjunctive to give negative commands simply requires that we conjugate the stem of the verb in the “yo”, “I”, form.
Carlos: Because then we drop the “O” and interchange the corresponding “ar”, “er” or “ir” endings of the verb, “as” or “es” for the informal “tú” form.
Dylan: Or to make it a little simpler, we substitute “A” for the endings of “er”, “ir” verbs to form the subjunctive. Likewise we substitute “A” for the endings of “ar” verbs to form the subjunctive.
Carlos: Now what about irregular verbs?
Dylan: Irregular verbs follow a similar pattern. Generally we must first conjugate the stem of the verb in the “yo”, “I”, form. Then we substitute “A” for the corresponding endings of “er”, “ir” verbs and we do the opposite for “ar” verbs.
Carlos: Now let’s check out some formation so we can see just how to do this. Here are the basic rules for giving negative commands. For “ir” and “er” verbs
Dylan: No plus conjugated stem of “yo” form with the “O” dropped plus the corresponding “ar” ending as we will tell you in the table below.
Carlos: Okay, so the verb ending of...
Dylan: “As”
Carlos: Corresponds to the pronoun “tú”. The verb ending of...
Dylan: “A”.
Carlos: Corresponds to the pronoun of “usted”. The verb ending of...
Dylan: “Amos”.
Carlos: Corresponding pronoun of “nosotros”, and finally the verb ending of...
Dylan: “An”.
Carlos: With the corresponding pronoun of “ellos”, “ellas”, or “ustedes”. For example...
Dylan: “Decir”, meaning “to say”, “no” plus “dig-” drop the “O” plus “as”.
Carlos: Becoming “no digás”.
Dylan: “No digas”.
Carlos: Sorry, “no digas”.
Dylan: Perfect.
Carlos: That one too. Okay, the construction. Let’s hear some sample sentences for “tú”.
Dylan: “No digas nada”.
Carlos: “Don’t say anything.” “Usted”.
Dylan: “No diga nada”.
Carlos: “Don’t say anything.” “Nosotros”.
Dylan: “No digamos nada”.
Carlos: “Don’t say anything.” “Ustedes”.
Dylan: “No digan nada”.
Carlos: Once again, “don’t say anything”, and we noticed the changing in the related pronouns. So for “ar” verbs...
Dylan: “No” plus conjugated stem of “yo” form with the “O” dropped plus the corresponding “ir”, “er” ending.
Carlos: So for the verb ending of...
Dylan: “Es”.
Carlos: The corresponding pronoun is “tú”. For the verb ending of...
Dylan: “E”.
Carlos: The corresponding pronoun is “usted”. For the verb ending of...
Dylan: “Emos”.
Carlos: The corresponding pronoun is “nosotros” and for the verb ending in...
Dylan: “En”.
Carlos: Corresponding pronoun is “ellos”, “ellas” or “ustedes”. For an example, “hablar”, “to speak.”
Dylan: “No” plus “habl-” drop the “O” plus “es”.
Carlos: “No hablés”.
Dylan: “No hables”.
Carlos: “No hables”. That’s better. So let’s check it out with the same way. The construction of “tú”.
Dylan: “No hables”.
Carlos: “No hables”. “Don’t speak.” The construction of “usted”.
Dylan: “No hable”.
Carlos: “Don’t speak.” Construction with “nosotros”.
Dylan: “No hablemos”.
Carlos: “Don’t speak”, and construction with “ustedes”.
Dylan: “No hablen”.
Carlos: “Don’t speak.” Okay, so let’s switch it up a little bit. I have three different verbs. Let’s check out some negative commands for regular verb. Okay Dylan, how about an “ar” verb?
Dylan: In the infinitive “cerrar”, “to close.”
Carlos: So how would I give a negative command using “cerrar”?
Dylan: “No cierres la puerta”.
Carlos: “Don’t close the door”, and we have “tú” in the informal command. How about an “er” verb?
Dylan: “Comer”, “to eat.”
Carlos: Okay, how about a sample sentence?
Dylan: “No comas la hamburguesa”.
Carlos: “Don’t eat the hamburger.” Sounds like my mom, “tú” informal command, and finally “ir” verbs.
Dylan: “Escribir”, “to write.” “No escribas la carta”.
Carlos: “Don’t write the letter.” “Tú” informal command. Okay, you know what guys, let’s check out some irregular verbs just to have a well rounded little lesson here. So how about a “ir” verb, Dillon?
Dylan: “Decir”, “to say.” “No digas nada”.
Carlos: “Don’t say anything”, “tú” informal command. How about an “er” verb?
Dylan: “Hacer”, “to do” or “to make”. “No hagas eso”.
Carlos: “Don’t do that”, “tú” informal command. And finally...
Dylan: Another “er” verb would be “tener”, “to have.” “No tengas miedo”.
Carlos: “Don’t be scared”, “don’t have fear.” “Tú” informal command.
Dylan: Now in our conversation for today, “Debes cocinar la carne en agua y también debes asar los chiles para poder quitarles la cáscara”.
Carlos: “You must cook the meat in water and also grill the peppers so that you can take off the skin.”
Dylan: Note how we substitute “A” for the endings of “er”, “ir” verbs. Likewise we substitute “E” into the endings of “ar” verbs to form the subjunctive.
OUTRO
Carlos: Now don’t be discouraged if this is confusing at first. You know, mastering this, the usage of the subjunctive and the imperative mood is literally one of the most difficult aspects of Spanish. So keep that in mind. Okay guys, you know what, that just about does it for today. Okay, some of our listeners already know about the most powerful tool in spanishpod101.com
Dylan: Line by line audio.
Carlos: The perfect tool for rapidly improving listening comprehension.
Dylan: By listening to lines of the conversation again and again.
Carlos: Listen until every word and syllable becomes clear. Basically we break down the dialogue in the comprehensible bite size sentences.
Dylan: You can try the line by line audio in the premium learning center at spanishpod101.com. ¡Hasta luego!
Carlos: ¡Chao!

7 Comments

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SpanishPod101.com
Tuesday at 6:30 pm
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Do you think making chile rellenos is this difficult? Have you ever tried?

SpanishPod101.comVerified
Friday at 12:58 pm
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Hola William,


Thank you for your feedback.

We will consider this to improve the lessons.

Te agradecemos la ayuda.

Sigamos practicando!


Saludos,

Carla

Team SpanishPod101.com

William Ross
Friday at 1:54 pm
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Just looking at the conversation translation;

For “el incrédulo de mi novio”, in English I don’t really hear the term “disbelieving”, most of the time you’ll hear “nonbelieving” or “nonbeliever”. But honestly I think for this particular dialogue, I think “stubborn” would be more practical. “Disbelieving” just sounds strange.

SpanishPod101.comVerified
Saturday at 3:08 pm
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Hi DMac,


Thank you for posting.

Dylan is not using the imperative mood in this sentence:

“Debes cocinar la carne en agua y también debes asar los chiles para poder quitarles la cáscara”.


The imperative version of it would be:

Cocina la carne en agua y también asa los chiles para poder quitales la cáscara.

"Cook the meat in water and also grill the peppers so that you can take off the skin."


Let us know if you have questions.

Hasta pronto,

Laura

Team SpanishPod101.com

DMac
Friday at 11:44 pm
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I am a little confused by this verbal exchange. The context of the conversation at this point is the imperative mood. Is Dylan using the imperative mood?


Dylan: Now in our conversation for today, “Debes cocinar la carne en agua y también debes asar los chiles para poder quitarles la cáscara”.

Carlos: “You must cook the meat in water and also grill the peppers so that you can take off the skin.”

Rodney
Thursday at 8:12 am
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Hmmm...us guys are always taking the heat in these lessons. How about some lessons that point out the wrong doings of the ladies!

natty
Thursday at 1:19 am
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this is beginner lesson? I find it very difficult :sad: