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Lesson Transcript

Dylan: Hola, hola a todos, ¿cómo están? Habla Dylan.
Carlos: What’s going on pod101 world? My name is Carlos. In this lesson, you will learn about adverbial conjunctions.
Dylan: This conversation takes place in a home.
Carlos: The conversation is between Fernanda and Sebastián.
Dylan: The speakers are friends and are speaking informally.
Carlos: Let’s listen to the conversation.
Fernanda: Mmm, antes de que te pongas pesado, Sebastián, mejor voy a llamar a mi abuela para que veas que yo tengo razón.
Sebastián: ¡Uyy, sí, amorcito! ¡Me parece una idea excelente! Porque creo que tú no sabes hacer los chiles. La carne no puede estar cruda cuando la pones adentro de los chiles.
Fernanda: ¿Ah sí? ¿Desde cuándo sabes cocinar?
Sebastián: Pues la verdad, nunca he cocinado, pero es lógico, ¿no crees?
Fernanda: ¡Ya no te voy a cocinar nada, Sebastián! ¡Vamos a comprar comida rápida!
Sebastián: ¡No! No, mi vida, discúlpame, no es mi intención hacerte enojar.
Fernanda: Está bien, mejor llamo a mi abuela, estoy segura que tengo razón.
Fernanda: Mmm, before you get to be a pain, Sebastián, I’d better call my grandma so you can see that I’m right.
Sebastián: Oh, my love, that sounds like an excellent idea because I don’t think you know how to make the peppers. The meat can’t be raw when you put it inside them.
Fernanda: Oh yeah? Since when do you know how to cook?
Sebastián: Well, the truth is, I’ve never cooked, but it’s logical…don’t you think?
Fernanda: I’m not cooking anything for you, Sebastián! Let’s go get some fast food!
Sebastián: No!!! No, my love, forgive me, it's not my intention to make you mad.
Fernanda: Okay, I had better call my grandma, I’m sure I’m right.
Dylan: He just doesn’t keep his mouth shut.
Carlos: See like seriously, that mean once you say “no, no, no my love, forgive me”, it’s over.
Dylan: Guys, guys if you learned something from this lesson other than all the Spanish we are teaching you, it is just keep your mouth shut.
Carlos: And put raw meat into “chiles rellenos”, okay.
Dylan: Honestly, I don’t think that’s the way to do it. I think he is right. You do have to cook it.
Carlos: That is why she has to agree that the man was right.
Dylan: Yes, I do.
Carlos: Okay.
Dylan: Because I know how to make “chiles”, but you are right, just don’t say it. Eat it.
Carlos: That’s true. Keep that in mind guys especially for Spanish women, they are very sensitive.
Dylan: Very.
Carlos: Okay. Let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Dylan: “Pesado, pesada”.
Carlos: “Heavy.”
Dylan: “Pe-sa-do, pe-sa-da”, “pesado, pesada”. “Llamar”.
Carlos: “To call.”
Dylan: “Lla-mar”, “llamar”. “Parecer”.
Carlos: “To seem”, “to resemble.”
Dylan: “Pa-re-cer”, “parecer”. “Cruda”.
Carlos: “Raw.”
Dylan: “Cru-da”, “cruda”. “Cuándo”
Carlos: “When.”
Dylan: “Cuán-do”, “cuándo”. “Enojar”.
Carlos: “To be angry.”
Dylan: “E-no-jar”, “enojar”.
Carlos: Okay guys, let’s have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Dylan: The first word we will look at is “pesado”.
Carlos: Things are looking very heavy, Dylan.
Dylan: Yes, they are. It looks like Fernanda is having some problems.
Carlos: Now she just wants to make sure that everything is done correctly.
Dylan: I am sure she does but Sebastián is getting to be a pain.
Carlos: Or he is about to which is why she says...
Dylan: “Mmmm, antes de que te pongas pesado”.
Carlos: “Before you get to be a pain”, but that is a loose translation. Isn’t it since “pesado” means “heavy.”
Dylan: Yes, but you can see the relationship with that translation.
Carlos: Yeah, you are right.
Dylan: But you do have a point. Let’s use the adjective “pesado, pesada” in this general context.
Carlos: Bueno. “Esta mesa es muy pesada”.
Dylan: “This table is really heavy.”
Carlos: Now what about the sentence that we just translated as?
Dylan: Right. I could say, “Juan es muy pesado, es arrogante, no es amable”.
Carlos: “Juan is really heavy, he is arrogant, he isn’t nice.” So he is just a bad person.
Dylan: Well, no, not really. He is not like heavy like he weighs. He is just – he is arrogant. He is not nice, he is mean. He is a pain.
Carlos: Ah okay, I get it. So what is the opposite of “pesado, pesada”?
Dylan: That would be “liviano, liviana”, “light.”
Carlos: Ah so that’s what it means when I am selling “liviano, liviana” in the supermarket.
Dylan: Yep. It’s light.
Carlos: I will keep that in mind if we are buying full fat stuff.
Dylan: That’s a lot tastier but next up, “llamar”, “to call.”
Carlos: “Mejor voy a llamar a mi abuela para que veas que yo tengo razón”.
Dylan: “I’d better call my grandma so you can see that I am right.”
Carlos: Why wouldn’t she have to prove that she is right?
Dylan: Well, it seems like Sebastián is one of those know it all types.
Carlos: I hate those types.
Dylan: Yeah, I am sure you do. Hey, I got an idea.
Carlos: What’s that?
Dylan: Remember when we were learning the future tense?
Carlos: Yes, I remember, why?
Dylan: Well, do you remember how to say “I will call you”?
Carlos: Yeah, “te llamaré más tarde”, that was my click moment.
Dylan: That’s why I asked.
Carlos: What’s next?
Dylan: An interesting verb.
Carlos: Yeah, all interesting.
Dylan: But this one more than others because it gives problems to so many people.
Carlos: Which is it?
Dylan: “Parecer”.
Carlos: Uh, “parecer”, “to seem”, “to resemble.” That is confusing one at times.
Dylan: Now let’s hear the example from the conversation.
Carlos: “Me parece una idea excelente”. “It seems like a excellent idea to me.”
Dylan: Well, we translated it as “that sounds like an excellent idea.” Both work, just which would you say in English?
Carlos: The latter, definitely.
Dylan: There you go.
Carlos: But what about another sample sentence?
Dylan: “A Juan le parece que Marcela tiene razón”.
Carlos: “Juan feels that Marcela is right.”
Dylan: Give this one time and it will click.
Carlos: Going on faith.
Dylan: Well, think of a related word then.
Carlos: “Pensar”, “to think.”
Dylan: Is that your final answer?
Carlos: Yes, this is my final answer.
Dylan: Good. I will accept that.
Carlos: Me parece un ejemplo excelente.
Dylan: There you go. Next up, “crudo, cruda”.
Carlos: Having the slightest.
Dylan: “Raw.”
Carlos: So that’s the word I was looking for.
Dylan: Why?
Carlos: Because I asked for a steak meaty on the other day and it came out practically raw but I couldn’t find the word.
Dylan: Well, now you know.
Carlos: So I agree with Sebastian’s caution, “la carne no puede estar cruda cuando la pones adentro de los chiles”.
Dylan: “The meat can’t be raw when you put it inside the peppers.” Oh oh….
Carlos: What?
Dylan: Well, she is trying to making this nice meal and he is commenting on her method. This is not a good move.
Carlos: Once again that’s true. You have to be delicate with things like that either in the hard way.
Dylan: Sometimes it’s better to just eat some raw meat.
Carlos: Consider it like steak tartar.
Dylan: Ajjj, no me gusta la carne cruda.
Carlos: I don’t like the raw meat either but that doesn’t mean that I wouldn’t shut up, smile and eat it if my girlfriend will make it for me.
Dylan: You have been well trained, young man.
Carlos: So they say.
Dylan: So what’s the opposite of “crudo, cruda”?
Carlos: That would be “cocinada”, “well done”, which I will ask for next time.
Dylan: Yeah. Then you will get it medium.
Carlos: I will keep you updated.
Dylan: “¿Cuándo?”
Carlos: When, the next time I go in?
Dylan: Thank you for defining our next word.
Carlos: Now how is it used in the conversation?
Dylan: Well, Fernanda is getting a bit defensive when she responds to Sebastian’s criticism with...
Carlos: “¿Desde cuándo sabes cocinar?”
Dylan: “Since when do you know how to cook?” He should have expected that.
Carlos: Yep, although truth be told, I think he is right. I mean, I am sure the meat won’t cook in the peppers.
Dylan: Well, that’s not the issue at hand really. Ask me some questions using “cuándo”.
Carlos: “¿Cuándo es la fiesta?”
Dylan: “When is the party?”
Carlos: “¿Cuándo va a ir a los Estados Unidos?”
Dylan: “When are you going to the United States?”
Carlos: Good.
Dylan: Perfect.
Carlos: Next up...
Dylan: “Enojar”.
Carlos: “To anger.” I learned that one quickly.
Dylan: I bet. You can hear Sebastián trying to backstop because he did not understand the gravity of his situation.
Carlos: “No, mi vida, discúlpame, no es mi intención hacerte enojar”.
Dylan: “No, my love, forgive me. It’s not my intention to make you mad.”
Carlos: Hah once that is said, it is simply too late.
Dylan: Oh yeah, that ship sailed the minute he opened his mouth.
Carlos: But sometimes you need to fight. It’s not always a bad thing.
Dylan: Yeah, you believe that?
Carlos: Definitely, “ayer ella se enojó conmigo otra vez”.
Dylan: She was mad at you again?
Carlos: I will admit that I deserved it this time but she got over it.
Dylan: Do you know the related adjective?
Carlos: Oh yeah, I hear more than I would like “enojado, enojada”.
Dylan: “Angry.”
Carlos: Let’s get away from this topic and go to grammar.

Lesson focus

Dylan: Today let’s check out adverbial conjunctions.
Carlos: We already went over the definitions of an adverb...
Dylan: But let’s hear it again.
Carlos: It’s a word that doesn’t change forms. Its function is to complement the meaning of a verb and an adjective or another adverb in a certain sequence.
Dylan: Oh okay, got that down. Now what about a conjunction?
Carlos: Now a conjunction is a word that doesn’t change forms and that triggers different types of subordinated clauses or that joins words or sequences that are syntactically equivalent.
Dylan: So then...
Carlos: So then an adverbial conjunction indicates a pending hypothetical action or statement.
Dylan: Correct. In Spanish, the subordinated clauses after an adverbial conjunction are typically formed in the subjunctive mood.
Carlos: The subjunctive is scary.
Dylan: Don’t worry too much.
Carlos: I will try.
Dylan: Of course, we cannot provide an exhaustive list of adverbial conjunctions but we think you will find this useful as you begin to recognize these phrases in relations to the tense of the clause which they subordinate. “Llámame antes de que te vayas”. “Call me before you go.”
Carlos: Okay, so what you got?
Dylan: “A condición de que”.
Carlos: “On the condition that.”
Dylan: “A menos que”.
Carlos: “Unless.”
Dylan: “A no ser que”.
Carlos: “Unless.”
Dylan: “Antes de que”.
Carlos: “Before.”
Dylan: “Con tal de que”.
Carlos: “Provided that.”
Dylan: “En caso de que”.
Carlos: “In case.”
Dylan: “Para que”.
Carlos: “So that.”
Dylan: “Sin que”.
Carlos: “Without.” Okay, that list wasn’t so bad.
Dylan: Well, here is some sample sentences. “Iré contigo a condición de que me invites a un café”.
Carlos: “I will go with you on the condition that you buy me a coffee.”
Dylan: “A menos que me recojas, no podré ir”.
Carlos: “Unless you pick me up, I won’t be able to go.”
Dylan: “No salgo esta noche a no ser que me llame María”.
Carlos: “I am not going out tonight unless Maria calls me.”
Dylan: “Sal de mi vista antes de que llame a la policía”.
Carlos: “Get out of my site before I call the police.”
Dylan: “Con tal de que me devuelvas el auto a las 5 en punto, te lo presto”.
Carlos: “I will lend you my car as long as you bring it back at 5 on the dot.”
Dylan: “En el caso de que te olvides quién eres, mírate en el espejo”.
Carlos: “In case you forgot who you are, look at yourself in the mirror.”
Dylan: “Esperamos que estén aprendiendo mucho”.
Carlos: “We hope that you are learning a lot.”
Dylan: “Sin que nadie se despertara, el ladrón entró y salió de la casa”.
Carlos: “Without anyone waking up, the thief went in and out of the house.”
Dylan: Let’s take a look at how these adverbial conjunctions trigger subordinate clause with the verb in the subjunctive mood.
Carlos: Okay.
Dylan: For example, “Sal de mi vista antes de que llame a la policía”. “Get out of my sight before I call the police.”
Carlos: So what’s the main clause?
Dylan: Here the main clause is “sal de mi vista” and the verb in this clause is “sal” which is the informal singular command of the verb “salir”, “to get out”, “to leave.” “Sal de mi vista”, “get out of my sight.” Then comes the adverbial conjunction which indicates to us that a subordinate clause is on its way. “Antes de que llame a la policía”. “Before I call the police.”
Carlos: So then I can assume in the subordinate clause, the verb “llame” which has been conjugated to the present tense of this subjunctive mood?
Dylan: Correct. It’s important to recognize that even though we are using the present tense, since it’s in the subjunctive mood, the action would take place in the future, hypothetical as it maybe.
Carlos: Noted.
Dylan: As we said, this list is not exhaustive. Here are some other adverbial conjunctions. All of the following are related to time.
Carlos: Dígame.
Dylan: “A medida que”.
Carlos: “As.”
Dylan: “Cuando”.
Carlos: “When.”
Dylan: “Dado que”.
Carlos: “Granted that.”
Dylan: “Después de que”.
Carlos: “As soon as.”
Dylan: “Hasta que”.
Carlos: “Until.”
Dylan: “Luego que”.
Carlos: “As soon as.”
Dylan: “Mientras”.
Carlos: “While.”
Dylan: “Nada más que”.
Carlos: “As soon as.”
Dylan: “Por más que”.
Carlos: “However much.”
Dylan: “Por mucho que”.
Carlos: “However much.”
Dylan: “Siempre que”.
Carlos: “Every time that.”
Dylan: “Tan pronto como”.
Carlos: “As soon as.”


Carlos: Now I don’t know about you audience but I think that list just about does it for today.
Dylan: Bye everybody. ¡Gracias!
Carlos: Nos vemos, ¡chao!


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