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Dylan: Hola, hola a todos. Habla Dylan, ¿cómo están?
Carlos: What’s going on pod101 world? My name is Carlos. In this lesson, you will learn about future intentions.
Dylan: The conversation takes place outside of a ticket booth.
Carlos: The conversation is between Jorge and the scalper.
Dylan: The speakers are strangers, so they are speaking formally.
Carlos: Let’s listen to the conversation.
Revendedor: Ehhh, ¡disculpe! Escuché que quería tiquetes para el concierto de Vicente Fernández.
Jorge: Sí, pero ya se acabaron.
Revendedor: ¿Y cuántas entradas necesita?
Jorge: La de mi novia y la mía.
Revendedor: Pues yo tengo dos entradas extra, ¿las quiere?
Jorge: ¡Claro! ¿Pero cuánto me van a costar?
Revendedor: Bueno, recuerde que ya se agotaron, entonces van a ser un poco más caros.
Revendedor: Ummmm, excuse me! I heard you wanted tickets for the Vicente Fernandez concert.
Jorge: Yes, but they're sold out.
Revendedor: And how many tickets do you need?
Jorge: My girlfriend's and mine.
Revendedor: Well, I have two extra tickets, do you want them?
Jorge: Of course! But how much are they going to cost me?
Revendedor: Well, remember that they're sold out, so they're going to be a bit more expensive.
Dylan: Just a wee bit more expensive.
Carlos: Yeah, I have been to a couple of shows here. I don’t remember seeing scalpers. Are scalpers like common out here?
Dylan: Yeah, I have seen them. They don’t wait outside the ticket booth. They wait for you like the day of the concert outside the door.
Carlos: Like in New York, you cannot go to a concert, tickets, tickets,tickets, they are all usually fake.
Dylan: It’s the same here.
Carlos: Okay.
Dylan: Yeah.
Carlos: You get ripped off for fakes?
Dylan: You know what, they do it a lot for the soccer games.
Carlos: Oh okay, I can imagine yeah, the soccer fanatics.
Dylan: Yes.
Carlos: But can you trust the scalper if you buy tickets?
Dylan: I can’t, I don’t know.
Carlos: That’s right because Dylan already gets into all of the night shows for like cob by being who she is.
Dylan: Yes, yes.
Carlos: Okay guys, let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Dylan: “Cuánto”, “cuánta”.
Carlos: “How much”, “how many.”
Dylan: “Cuán-to”, “cuán-ta”, “cuánto”, “cuánta”. “Novio”, “novia”.
Carlos: “Boyfriend”, “girlfriend.”
Dylan: “No-vio”, “no-via”, “novio”, “novia”. “Costar”.
Carlos: “To cost”, “to be difficult”, “hard.”
Dylan: “Cos-tar”, “costar”. “Recordar”.
Carlos: “To remember.”
Dylan: “Re-cor-dar”, “recordar”. “Caro, cara”.
Carlos: “Expensive.”
Dylan: “Ca-ro”, “ca-ra”, “caro”, “cara”. “Pues”.
Carlos: “So”, “so then.”
Dylan: “Pues”, “pues”.
Carlos: Okay guys, let’s have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Dylan: The first word we will look at is “cuántos”, “cuántas”.
Carlos: And an important pronoun. “How much”, “how many.” You know, I was surprised at just how much I ask how much. You see what I mean?
Dylan: Oh yeah, I see.
Carlos: I mean here in the conversation, we have a well defined question and one that can’t be applied in many ways.
Dylan: “¿Y cuántas entradas necesita?”
Carlos: “And how many tickets do you need?”
Dylan: Wait! How can that be applied in many ways?
Carlos: Think about it. Give me a noun.
Dylan: Carlos.
Carlos: Okay, that was smaller.
Dylan: Okay, I get it, “colones”.
Carlos: “¿Cuántos colones necesita?”
Dylan: “How many colones do you need?” Now using this word brings up a common question that you may ask if you are traveling.
Carlos: And what’s that?
Dylan: “¿Cuántos años tiene usted?”
Carlos: “How old are you?” Formal. Dylan, you know my rule on that. I never ask anyone how old they are. It opens the door for too much embarrassment.
Dylan: Well, either way, for those in our audience who do not feel the same way, when you are meeting someone and you already ask “¿Cómo se llama?”, your next question could be...
Carlos: “¿Cuántos años tiene usted?”
Dylan: Next up. For the romantics out there, “novios”, “novias”.
Carlos: “Boyfriends”, “girlfriends.”
Dylan: Oh, you know those words.
Carlos: Of course I do, “Mi novia es muy guapa”.
Dylan: You couldn’t wait to put that out in the sample sentence. Could you?
Carlos: No, soy orgulloso.
Dylan: That’s good. A man should be proud but let’s get back to our focus, the conversation.
Carlos: “La de mi novia y la mía”.
Dylan: “My girlfriend’s and mine.”
Carlos: You know, I guarantee he is paying for it.
Dylan: Hey, don’t make assumptions. Going Dutch is more and more popular. Women aren’t so dependent any more.
Carlos: Now here I am thinking on progressive and yet I am old school.
Dylan: Have you ever heard the noun “el noviazgo”?
Carlos: No, I haven’t.
Dylan: “The engagement.”
Carlos: Or like the betrothal. Now isn’t there another word for that though?
Dylan: I think you are thinking about the synonym “compromisos”.
Carlos: That’s it.
Dylan: So...
Carlos: So… ¿entonces?
Dylan: No, “pues”.
Carlos: “Pues”. “So”, “so then.”
Dylan: And what type of word is this?
Carlos: It is a conjunction.
Dylan: “Pues yo tengo dos entradas extra”.
Carlos: “So I have two extra tickets.” Man, that’s stroke of luck.
Dylan: Now you are right. We could have used “entonces”.
Carlos: So those two are interchangeable.
Dylan: Not completely. Think of “pues” as a continuation and “entonces” as a reaction.
Carlos: Okay, I see what you mean.
Dylan: Nice. Then you could give us a sample sentence using “pues”.
Carlos: “Pues ya está”. “So that’s it.”
Dylan: You are right. That’s it. Next up, our first verb of the day.
Carlos: About time.
Dylan: “Costar”, “to cost.”
Carlos: Now my most common association with “costar” is the obvious “¿Cuánto cuesta?”
Dylan: “How much does it cost?”
Carlos: But here in the conversation, it is a cool way to say it. At least I think so.
Dylan: “¿Cuánto me van a costar?”
Carlos: “How much are they going to cost me?” You know there is not going to be a good answer to that question at all.
Dylan: No, no there won’t.
Carlos: But let me see if I can manage to use “costar” in the past tense.
Dylan: Sounds good. Let me see. If you like to read, let’s say that you bought a book. How much did it cost you?
Carlos: “El libro me costó 15000 colones”. “The book cost me 15000 colons.”
Dylan: That’s an expensive book, Carlos.
Carlos: Hey, you know how expensive books are down here. You know, how much would that be on an average?
Dylan: Well, in today’s exchange rate, it would be about USD25.
Carlos: Man, how the currency changes. When I moved down here almost 2 years ago, it was USD30.
Dylan: Well, if you make dollars, all the better for you.
Carlos: You know, I know the related word you are going to come out with.
Dylan: Oh yeah, well, try me.
Carlos: “El costo”, “the cost.” That makes me laugh.
Dylan: What makes you laugh?
Carlos: You know the fact they used to have these old jokes where someone would try to speak the Spanish, all they would do is add a “O” to the end of the English word like...
Dylan: Yeah, like “¿Dónde está el ‘bathroomo’?”
Carlos: Right, but here it makes sense. So lucky us.
Dylan: And lucky you, audience.
Carlos: And what’s next?
Dylan: “Recordar”.
Carlos: My favorite verb that means “to remember.”
Dylan: As opposed to “acordar”?
Carlos: Exactly.
Dylan: You really should get into the habit of using “acordar”. It’s the most common usage down here.
Carlos: Yeah, yeah, yeah one thing at a time, Dylan. Luckily, our example from the conversation uses my favorite.
Dylan: And what is it?
Carlos: To answer the Jorge’s question. So now you know that however much the tickets are going to cost them, they are going to cost them a lot of money, “Bueno, recuerde que ya se agotaron, entonces van a ser un poco más caros”.
Dylan: Well, remember they are sold out. So they are going to be a bit more expensive.
Carlos: Ouch! Those tickets are going to cost them a pretty penny.
Dylan: Now what do you notice about the verb here?
Carlos: Ah yes, I almost didn’t notice “recordar” is being used here in the imperative which as a matter of fact, I don’t think I used it often.
Dylan: No better time to start than now.
Carlos: “Recuerde”.
Dylan: See how “recordar” still kept its “O” to “U” stem change.
Carlos: I did and I do.
Dylan: “Perfecto”. So you said you don’t use “recordar” much in the imperative. So try a sample sentence.
Carlos: Oh yeah, something that you say to me at times.
Dylan: Yeah, and what’s that?
Carlos: “Carlos, recuerde traerme el dinero”.
Dylan: True. “Carlos, remember to bring me the money.”
Carlos: Not that you have to ask me that much.
Dylan: Actually no, you are very good with your debts.
Carlos: That’s because I try not to have them.
Dylan: Usted tiene buena memoria.
Carlos: Thank you. I think I do have a good memory and with that said, I remember that we have one word left.
Dylan: That we do. Last but not least an adjective no one likes.
Carlos: That’s never good.
Dylan: “Caros”.
Carlos: Yes.
Dylan: Not Carlos, “caros”.
Carlos: Oh sorry, “caros, caras”, “expensive.” You know but I don’t agree with that, Dylan. I think some people do like the adjective “expensive.”
Dylan: Yeah, because they can afford it or when they are the salesmen.
Carlos: Touché, touché.
Dylan: Yes, because they can afford it.
Carlos: Well, that must be nice also.
Dylan: Must be.
Carlos: Well, we heard the example in the sentence already. Won’t do any harm to hear it again.
Dylan: Good, because the example sentence here is a perfect lead in for grammar. Our grammar piece is in there too.
Carlos: Okay, then “Bueno, recuerde que ya se agotaron, entonces van a ser un poco más caros”.
Dylan: “Well, remember that they are sold out. So they are going to be a bit more expensive.”
Carlos: Now here is a sample sentence for you and one that played off of something we said already.
Dylan: Oh yeah, and what’s that?
Carlos: “Los libros en Costa Rica son muy caros”.
Dylan: “Books in Costa Rica are very expensive.” So very sad, so very true.
Carlos: Now what is the adjective that everyone and I mean everyone likes?
Dylan: I don’t know which...
Carlos: The “opuesto” or “opposite” of “caro, cara”, which is...
Dylan: “Barato, barata”.
Carlos: And these lessons don’t come cheap and neither does...
Dylan: Grammar. Today we study how to express future actions using “la perífrasis” which is...

Lesson focus

Carlos: A unit made up of one verb in a personal form and another in an impersonal form.
Dylan: This way of speaking often takes a place of the absolute future. Here we conjugate the personal verb “ir”, “to go”, and then we add the preposition “a” and the infinitive of the future action to be carried out.
Carlos: Now unlike the absolute future tense guys which expresses definitive statement that we will do something, we are expressing here “el futuro de intención”, “the future of intention”, which shows our intention to carry out an action with less absolute certainty. In order to build this structure, we need to know the conjugation of the verb “ir”, “to go”, in both the imperfect past tense and the present tense and this is a structure you will use every day.
Dylan: Let’s check out formation.
Carlos: “Ir”, the personal verb, plus “a” plus the infinitive, the impersonal verb. First, let’s check out the present tense.
Dylan: “Yo voy a”, “tú vas a “, “él va a”, “ella va a”, “usted va a”, “nosotros vamos a”, “vosotros vais a”, “ellos/ellas van a”, “ustedes van a”.
Carlos: And now the imperfect past tense.
Dylan: “Yo iba a”, “tú ibas a”, “él iba a”, “ella iba a”, “usted iba a”, “nosotros íbamos a”, “vosotros ibais a”, “ellos/ellas iban a”, “ustedes iban a”.
Carlos: Okay, let’s check out the sample sentences to differentiate these two.
Dylan: “Voy a caminar en el parque”.
Carlos: “I am going to walk in the park.”
Dylan: “Vas a hacer tu tarea”.
Carlos: “You are going to do your homework.” Now contrast this with the following use of the absolute future.
Dylan: “Iré a caminar en el parque”.
Carlos: “I will go to walk in the park.”
Dylan: “Harás tu tarea”.
Carlos: “You will do your homework.” Now observe the differences between the present tense and the imperfect past tense conjugation of the verb “ir”, “to go”, forming the periphrasis.
Dylan: “Yo voy a trabajar”.
Carlos: “I am going to work.”
Dylan: “Yo iba a trabajar”.
Carlos: “I was going to work.”
Dylan: “Tú vas a venir”.
Carlos: “You are going to come.”
Dylan: “Tú ibas a venir”.
Carlos: “You were going to come.”
Dylan: “Ella va a dormir”.
Carlos: “She is going to sleep.”
Dylan: “Ella iba a dormir”.
Carlos: “She was going to sleep.”
Dylan: “Nosotros vamos a jugar”.
Carlos: “We are going to play.”
Dylan: “Nosotros íbamos a jugar”.
Carlos: “We were going to play.”
Dylan: “Vosotros vais a comer algo”.
Carlos: “You all are going to eat something.”
Dylan: “Vosotros ibais a comer algo”.
Carlos: “You all were going to eat something.”
Dylan: “Ellos van a correr”.
Carlos: “They are going to run.”
Dylan: “Ellos iban a correr”.
Carlos: “They were going to run.”
Dylan: Remember that we refer to “ir”, “to go”, as the personal verb in this case because we are conjugating it to show who is going to carry out the impersonal action, the attached infinitive.
Carlos: Now there are two reasons why this periphrastic construction is so important to learners. First, it’s very very very very very very common in everyday speech, and we mean every day!
Dylan: Secondly, it’s so so so so so so so so important to learn because the verb “ir” is very very irregular, which means you are gonna memorize the forms.
Carlos: And there are so many different kinds of periphrastic construction in Spanish. For example, we can say - Estoy por llegar which means “I’m about to arrive” or Este concepto puede ser difícil “This concept can be difficult.”


Carlos: But you know what, this wasn’t that difficult, so you kno what that means, guys? That just does it about for today.
Dylan: Hasta Luego!
Carlos: Nos vemos! Chao!


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