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Dylan: Hola amigos, ¿cómo están? Soy Dylan.
Carlos: What’s going on? My name is Carlos. - In the weeds. In this lesson we’ll learn about adverbs of time.
Dylan: So we’re continuing our discussion.
Carlos: Yes, and we are back with Santiago and Laura.
Dylan: They still cooking?
Carlos: Actually, they're co-workers in a restaurant.
Dylan: So, are they speaking formally or informally?
Carlos: Well, Dylan, we’re co-workers and we don’t speak formally, so I think it’s a safe assumption to think they are speaking…
Dylan: Informally?
Carlos: Yes, that’s right. You know what let’s listen to today’s conversation.
SANTIAGO: Corra Laura, aquí está el plato para la mesa 2.
LAURA: ¡Ocupo ajo! ¿¡Dónde está el ajo!?
SANTIAGO: En la condimentera.
LAURA: ¡Sirva la sopa!
SANTIAGO: ¡Esto está de locos!... ¿y el cucharón?
LAURA: ¡Lo tiene en frente! ¡El pollo! ¿Y el pollo? ¿¡Dónde está el pollo!?
SANTIAGO: Respire, Laura, ya está en el horno.
LAURA: Ay, perdón, es que hay mucha gente...
SANTIAGO: Voy a batir los huevos.
LAURA: Sal... orégano... paprika... listo?
SANTIAGO: Listo, llame a los meseros.
SANTIAGO: Run Laura, here's the dish for table two.
LAURA: I need garlic! Where's the garlic!?
SANTIAGO: It's with the spices.
LAURA: Serve the soup!
SANTIAGO: This is getting crazy! ...and the ladle?
LAURA: It's right in front of you! The chicken! And the chicken? Where's the chicken?
SANTIAGO: Breathe, Laura, it's already in the oven.
LAURA: Ah, sorry, it's just that there are a lot of people...
SANTIAGO: I'm going to beat the eggs.
LAURA: Salt...oregano...paprika...got it?
SANTIAGO: Got it, call the waiters.
Dylan: Woo! That was really, really harsh. That’s a busy restaurant.
Carlos: I’ve been there, trust me. I used to be a waiter for years. Uh, about eight, so I know what that’s like.
Dylan: Gosh.
Carlos: Oh it’s crazy. You know the cooks get all flustered. Plus I used to work at a diner. And I used to work on the morning shifts with the breakfast. Pancakes, eggs, waffles, bacon, everything, all going out once you get eight tables. It’s crazy, I mean, so I completely understand what Laura is going through and Santiago.
Dylan: I like being on the other side.
Carlos: I guess so. You ever been a waitress, Dylan?
Dylan: Yeah, I was a bartender actually. That’s more fun.
Carlos: Yeah, bartenders would be more fun. Well, you know what, let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson. First up we have a verb.
Dylan: “Correr”.
Carlos: “To run”, “to pull, move”, “to go fast.”
Dylan: “Co-rrer”, “correr”.
Carlos: And then we have another verb.
Dylan: “Ocupar”.
Carlos: “To occupy”,”to take up”, “to need.”
Dylan: “O-cu-par”, “ocupar”.
Carlos: And then a masculine noun.
Dylan: “Frente”.
Carlos: “Front.”
Dylan: “Fren-te”, “frente”.
Carlos: And then we have another verb.
Dylan: “Batir”.
Carlos: “To beat eggs.”
Dylan: “Ba-tir”, “batir”.
Carlos: Then we have a masculine noun.
Dylan: “Cucharón”.
Carlos: “Ladle.”
Dylan: “Cu-cha-rón”, “cucharón”.
Carlos: And last but not least, a masculine noun.
Dylan: “Horno”.
Carlos: “Oven.”
Dylan: “Hor-no”, “horno”.
Carlos: Ok, let’s have a closer look at the use for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Dylan: The first word we’ll look at is “correr”.
Carlos: “Correr”. “To run.”
Dylan: When you aren’t moving quickly, this is what they say, “¡corra!”
Carlos: Aww, I remember that you know. When I was a kid I hated running.
Dylan: What about when you were working at restaurant?
Carlos: Are you kidding me? The cooks always wanted you to move faster. “¡Corra!, ¡corra!” But God forbid that you ask them to move a little faster.
Dylan: Well, Santiago is using that same strategy on Laura.
Carlos: “Corra Laura, aquí está el plato para la mesa dos.”
Dylan: “Run, Laura. Here is the plate for table two.”
Carlos: So familiar… brings back memories. But Dylan, do you have a definition for us?
Dylan: “Ir deprisa”.
Carlos: You know and I think I have a sample sentence. “El atleta corre cinco kilómetros todos los días”.
Dylan: “The athlete runs five kilometers every day”. We have some related words that can apply to that sample sentence, “la carrera”.
Carlos: Ok, “the race”, right? Next up I believe we’ve seen this verb before.
Dylan: We have. “Ocupar”.
Carlos: “Ocupar”, “to occupy”, “to take up.”
Dylan: Yes, but also “to need”.
Carlos: Like “necesitar”.
Dylan: Exactly. If you look at the conversation you can see this explained.
Carlos: “Ocupo ajo”.
Dylan: “I need garlic.” You can never have enough garlic.
Carlos: Well, I mean you can. It just all depends on what you’re doing for the rest of the day. Like if we're recording a lesson…
Dylan: Yes, I can’t argue with that Carlos. Now, here’s another sentence with the same usage. “Ocupamos maíz molido para hacer la masa del tamal”.
Carlos: “We need ground corn to do the tamal dough.” “Tamal”. You know we discussed that in our other lesson and now that you mention it I want one.
Dylan: Ah ok, ok, ok, ok. Let’s continue over that stomach grumbling. “Frente”.
Carlos: A masculine noun, “frente, “front”. Not too difficult.
A. No it’s not. Santiago is asking for one of our other vocab words which we will get to later. And Laura’s answer to his question is...
Carlos: “Lo tienes enfrente”.
Dylan: “It’s right in front of you.” I can think of a thousand times when I’m looking for something and it’s just right in front of me.
Carlos: That’s how it usually happens. You know it’s obvious but you can’t see it. You know another topic... Do you know why I moved into my new house?
Dylan: Why?
Carlos: “Porque mi casa está enfrente de un parque muy grande”. “Because my house is in front of a huge park.”
Dylan: Wow! “Frente”, “el opuesto de atrás”, “the opposite of behind.”
Carlos: Does that makes sense?
Dylan: Well, I did think of a related word for this one of your opposite pairs.
Carlos: But you just did right. “Frente”, “front”, “atrás”, “back”.
Dylan: Exactly, now moving right along with “batir”.
Carlos: “Batir”.
Dylan: Now this verb means “to beat”, but in this case eggs.
Carlos: Did you know they just release information that eggs aren’t really bad for you, like in terms of cholesterol.
Dylan: Interesting Carlos.
Carlos: Wow. Ok, a little sarcasm. And I thought this was relevant.
Dylan: More relevant is how it was used in the conversation.
Carlos: “Voy a batir los huevos”.
Dylan: “I’m going to beat the eggs.”
Carlos: And how you like your eggs Dylan?
Dylan: Over-easy.
Carlos: Over-easy.
Dylan: Yup.
Carlos: I’m not an over-easy person. See some people prefer to use a whisk to beat their eggs. Me? “Yo bato los huevos con un tenedor”. “I beat the eggs with a fork.”
Dylan: So I assume your favorite kind of eggs are scrambled.
Carlos: I would be lying if I said no.
Dylan: You may have heard of this appliance which is our related word.
Carlos: And what is it?
Dylan: “Batidora”.
Carlos: I need some more kitchen appliances. So what is that a mixer or a beater?
Dylan: No, it’s a blender.
Carlos: A blender.
Dylan: “Batidora”.
Carlos: I do need more kitchen appliances.
Dylan: “¿Tiene un cucharón?”
Carlos: “A ladle”? As a matter of fact I do.
Dylan: Well, that is our next word. A masculine noun.
Carlos: The thing is I have a ladle, but that I use, but it’s metal and it scratches up my pans.
Dylan: Carlos, have to step it up and buy better cookery.
Carlos: I’ll get around to it but, you know, I don’t make a lot of money.
Dylan: Yeah, well… Santiago is looking for everything. His kitchen must be a mess. He’s also asking Laura, “¿y el cucharón?”.
Carlos: And the ladle?
Dylan: I did find the definition for this one. “Cucharón: cazo con mango o cuchara grande que sirve para repartir ciertos alimentos en la mesa y para ciertos usos culinarios”.
Carlos: You know I think I know some related words. “Cuchara”, “spoon”. “Cuchillo”, “knife”. “Tenedor”, “fork”.
Dylan: Wow, that’s a lot on their plate.
Carlos: Yes. On the “plato”.
Dylan: Last, but not least, we have “horno”.
Carlos: A masculine noun that means...
Dylan: “Oven.”
Carlos: You know Dylan, “tengo un horno eléctrico”.
Dylan: Do you like that better?
Carlos: Well, I thought I did until I got my electric bill.
Dylan: True, Laura is stressed out until Santiago tells her “ya está en el horno”.
Carlos: “It’s already in the oven.” I’ve been there. That is a very stressful situation.
Dylan: And we can define “horno: aparato culinario cerrado en cuyo interior se asan, calientan o gratinan alimentos”.
Carlos: You know what else I also learnt when I was buying my oven. A related word. I had no idea that “cocina” not only meant ”kitchen” but also “stove” or “oven.”
Dylan: You learn something new every day!
Carlos: I try.
Dylan: Carlos, we’re going to pick up where you left off with Natalia.
Carlos: I’m ready.
Dylan: You guys were studying adverbs, right?
Carlos: Yes, and I’ll save you the trouble of asking. Adverbs in Spanish are invariable meaning they do not show number of gender.
Dylan: Yes, covered that well, and their function?
Carlos: Well, their function is to modify the meaning of verbs and the meaning of adjectives, and the meaning of other verbs.
Dylan: Don’t forget the categories!
Carlos: I’m not adverbs of time, place, manner, quantity, affirmation, negation, doubt, exclusion, inclusion and interrogation. Last time we went through adverbs of place. Which category are we focusing on today?

Lesson focus

Dylan: Adverbs of time. Let’s take a look at some.
Carlos: Ok.
Dylan: “Ahora”.
Carlos: “Now.”
Dylan: “Antaño”.
Carlos: “Long ago.”
Dylan: “Anteayer”.
Carlos: “The day before yesterday.”
Dylan: “Antes”.
Carlos: “Before.”
Dylan: “Aún”.
Carlos: “Still”, “yet.”
Dylan: “Ayer”.
Carlos: “Yesterday.”
Dylan: “Cuando”.
Carlos: “When.”
Dylan: “Después”.
Carlos: “After.”
Dylan: “Entonces”.
Carlos: “Then.”
Dylan: “Hoy”.
Carlos: “Today.”
Dylan: “Jamás”.
Carlos: “Never.”
Dylan: “Luego”.
Carlos: “Soon.”
Dylan: “Mañana”.
Carlos: “Tomorrow.”
Dylan: “Mientras”.
Carlos: “While.”
Dylan: “Nunca”
Carlos: “Never.”
Dylan: “Siempre”.
Carlos: “Always.”
Dylan: “Pronto”.
Carlos: “Soon.”
Dylan: “Despacio”.
Carlos: “Slowly.”
Dylan: “Tarde”
Carlos: “Late.”
Dylan: “Temprano”.
Carlos: “Early.”
Dylan: “Todavía”.
Carlos: “Still”, “yet.”
Dylan: “Ya”.
Carlos: “Already”, “by now.”
Dylan: Alright, well let’s take a couple from that list and make some sample sentences.
Carlos: Ok.
Dylan: Pick one.
Carlos: “Aún”.
Dylan: “Aún estamos en Bogotá”.
Carlos: “We are still in Bogota.” How about “nunca”?
Dylan: “Nunca le habías llamado”.
Carlos: “You have never called him.” And “cuando”?
Dylan: “Me gusta viajar de vez en cuando”.
Carlos: “I like to travel from time to time.” And one more “ahora”.
Dylan: “De ahora en adelante no hablaremos inglés”.
Carlos: “From now on we will not speak English.”
Dylan: Ok, we have gone over adverbial locutions.
Carlos: Yes. Adverbial locutions are simply particular phrasal expressions that use adverbs. We have some examples.
Dylan: “De ahora en adelante”.
Carlos: “From now on.”
Dylan: “Al anochecer”.
Carlos: “At nightfall.”
Dylan: “De día”.
Carlos: “In the day.”
Dylan: “De la noche a la mañana”.
Carlos: “Overnight.”
Dylan: “De la tarde”.
Carlos: “In the afternoon.”
Dylan: “De la mañana”.
Carlos: “In the morning.”
Dylan: “De noche”.
Carlos: “At night.”
Dylan: “De vez en cuando”.
Carlos: “From time to time.”
Dylan: “En fin”.
Carlos: “At last.”
Dylan: “Pasado mañana”.
Carlos: “The day after tomorrow.”
Dylan: “Por ahora”.
Carlos: “For now.”
Dylan: “Por último”.
Carlos: “Finally.”
Dylan: So what do you think? Adverbs of time.
Carlos: It was time I got an explanation of those.
Dylan: Very funny, Carlos.


Carlos: Yeah, yeah , yeah. Well that just about does it for today, Dylan. Carlos: Ok. “¡Nos vemos!”
Dylan: Chao! ¡Gracias!


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