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Dylan: Hola a todos, es Dylan. ¿Cómo están?
Carlos: What’s going on Pod101 world? My name is Carlos – Prepping for lunch. In this lesson, you will learn about adverbs of place.
Dylan: Very direct.
Carlos: Hey, why beat around the bush? That is what we’re learning today.
Dylan: Ok then who are we meeting today?
Carlos: Well, we are meeting Laura and Santiago, and they are cooking.
Dylan: Right up your alley, Carlos.
Carlos: Yes, and I still love throwing down in the kitchen.
Dylan: So are they speaking informally or formally?
Carlos: Well, they are speaking informally. Let’s listen to today’s conversation.
LAURA: Oiga, Santiago, páseme esa olla.
LAURA: ¿Ya picó las verduras para el almuerzo?
SANTIAGO: Lo hago apenas termine de sazonar el guiso de rabo de buey.
LAURA: Bueno, aquí le dejo el cuchillo encima de la tabla de picar.
SANTIAGO: ¡Gracias, señorita!
LAURA: Hey, Santi, pass me that pot.
SANTIAGO: Here you go...
LAURA: Did you already chop the vegetables for lunch?
SANTIAGO: I'll do it as soon as I season the ox tail stew.
LAURA: Okay, I'll leave you the knife here on top of the cutting board.
SANTIAGO: Thanks, Laura!
Dylan: No. I’ll leave that to the man of the house. I do the cleaning up.
Carlos: That’s funny, you know, like it’s so funny down here like different dichotomy of male, female gender roles, cause I cook, I love cooking. Where I grew up, you know, you cook, you clean because, well, you move out of your house at 18. Here you’re surprised girl chopping up stuff, and putting stuff in pans and doing, you know, flambe and stuff.
Dylan: Yeah, not me.
Carlos: Well…
Dylan: I just make breakfast.
Carlos: It’s the most important meal of the day, Dylan, don’t sell yourself short.
Dylan: Yeah. Yeah, yeah, yeah. It’s easy though.
Carlos: It is, but easy to get right and easy to get wrong. A good breakfast is the mark of a good cook.
Dylan: Thank you, Carlos.
Carlos: You’re welcome. Let’s look at the vocabulary for this lesson. First up we have a verb.
Dylan: “Pasar”.
Carlos: “To pass”, “to pass by”, “to spend time.”
Dylan: “Pa-sar”, “pasar”.
Carlos: And then we have another verb.
Dylan: “Picar”.
Carlos: “To chop finely”, “to nibble.”
Dylan: “Pi-car”, “picar”.
Carlos: And then we have a feminine noun.
Dylan: “Verdura”.
Carlos: “Vegetable.”
Dylan: “Ver-du-ra”, “verdura”.
Carlos: And then a masculine noun.
Dylan: “Guiso”.
Carlos: “Stew”.
Dylan: “Gui-so”, “guiso”.
Carlos: And then we have a verb.
Dylan: “Sazonar”.
Carlos: “To ripen”, “to mature”, “to make something spicy”, “to season.”
Dylan: “Sa-zo-nar”, “sazonar”.
Carlos: And last but not least, an adverb.
Dylan: “Encima”.
Carlos: “Above”, “in addition.”
Dylan: “En-ci-ma”, “encima”.
Carlos: Ok. Let’s have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Dylan: The first word we'll look at is “pasar”.
Carlos: “Pasar”. And our verb which means…
Dylan: “To pass”, “to pass by”, “to spend time.”
Carlos: You know, I was able to figure out this verb easily.
Dylan: For argument’s sake - why?
Carlos: Well, when I didn’t speak a lick of Spanish, I would hear the conversation “oye Santi, pásame esa olla”.
Dylan: Why were people calling you “Santi”?
Carlos: You know what I mean, Dylan. Someone says to you “pásame”. That’s a pretty easy translation, “pass me”.
Dylan: So then translate this sentence from the conversation.
Carlos: “Hey, Santi, pass me that pot.”
Dylan: That’s pretty easy. But listen to the definition. “Pasar, llevar, conducir de un lugar a otro”. Can you come up with another example sentence that deals with “pasar” rather than just using “pásame”?
Carlos: Yeah, sure. “Yo paso por el supermercado antes de ir a trabajar”, “I pass by the supermarket before I go to work.”
Dylan: You go to the market everyday, ah?
Carlos: Pretty much. You know, I shop European style, only a few items here and there. I mean I live alone so I can't really buy a lot of stuff or it goes bad.
Dylan: That’s true.
Carlos: Plus, living in New York City can get expensive too, so I learned that skill while I didn’t have a lot of money to go shopping.
Dylan: Thanks for sharing. “Algo por lo que todo pasamos”. We could also say the phrase “pasar por”.
Carlos: Which means?
Dylan: “Go through.”
Carlos: Ok, let’s go through our next word.
Dylan: “Corny.” “Picar”.
Carlos: Also an AR verb.
Dylan: But this one means “to chop finely” in the context of our conversation.
Carlos: “¿Ya pico las verduras para el almuerzo?” “Should I chop the vegetables for lunch now?” Is there another meaning?
Dylan: Well, “picar” can also mean “to bite”, as in a bug bite.
Carlos: Oh, thanks for pointing that out. That is a little different definition there.
Dylan: Yeah, that’s why I'm here.
Carlos: So what do we call a bug bite, you know, which happens a lot down here.
Dylan: “Una picadura”. But let’s think of another sentence where we use it like the conversation. “Voy a picar las cebollas para hacer el arroz”.
Carlos: “I'm going to chop onions finely to use in rice.”
Dylan: Right. And with the definition of such, it makes more sense. “Picar, cortar o dividir en trozos muy menudos”.
Carlos: I love watching the knife work on “Iron Chef”, it’s amazing. I need a good knife down here.
Dylan: Have you ever actually made anything that you saw on the “Food Network”?
Carlos: To be honest, no, I haven’t actually.
Dylan: Hmm, well, you should learn how to make more recipes with “verduras”.
Carlos: That’s our next word, isn’t it?
Dylan: Yes, “verdura”, a feminine noun.
Carlos: “Vegetables.” Everybody should eat more vegetables.
Dylan: You first, “gordito”.
Carlos: Hey, more to love. Want to make things easier, we have already seen this vocabulary word used in our example from the conversation, “¿ya pico las verduras para el almuerzo?”
Dylan: “Should I chop the vegetables for lunch?”
Carlos: Greens are always good.
Dylan: And so are definitions. “Verdura: hortaliza, especialmente la de hojas verdes”.
Carlos: I have a sample sentence. “Las verduras son muy buenas para la salud”.
Dylan: “Vegetables are very good for your health.” Did you hear that at a public service announcement, Carlos?
Carlos: Yeah, well can’t we also say vegetables or “vegetales”.
Dylan: You would be understood, but “verduras” is a standard.
Carlos: Ok, “vegetales”. Right, but since we’re talking about food, Dylan, what’s next on our plate?
Dylan: “Guiso”.
Carlos: “Guiso” I would have said “güiso” but “guiso”. This is one you’re going to have to help me with.
Dylan: It’s a masculine noun that means “stew”.
Carlos: Well, I would’ve never guessed that.
Dylan: Well, listen to the example from the conversation. “Lo hago apenas termine de sazonar el guiso de rabo de buey”.
Carlos: So, “I’ll do it as soon as I’ll season the ox tail stew.” You know, ox tail stew is one of my favorite, it’s food for the soul.
Dylan: I don’t think I’ve ever had that. But “mi abuela hace un guiso de vegetales muy bueno”. “My grandmother cooks a really good vegetable stew.”
Carlos: Does she?
Dylan: She’s the best cook.
Carlos: You know, now that I think about it I don’t think my grandmother made a lot of vegetables, especially stew, but do can this count?
Dylan: Those are beans, legumes, but hey, I’ll give it to you.
Carlos: Is there a definition?
Dylan: Yeah, simple one “comida guisada”. When was the last time you had “guiso de rabo de buey”?
Carlos: A good ox tail stew? Probably in Peru, and that was years ago.
Dylan: Well, you can replace that with a nice “olla de carne”.
Carlos: Oh, trust me, I have.
Dylan: Next up, “sazonar”.
Carlos: “To season.”
Dylan: Also “to ripen”, “to mature”. How did you know that off the bat?
Carlos: I grew up looking at those orange packets of “sazón” that my mother cooked with. I mean it’s not much of a jump, I saw her seasoning all kind of things with it.
Dylan: Yeah, “sazonar” does mean “season” or to make something spicy also, and you know how I feel about spicy food.
Carlos: I know you hate it. “Los mexicanos sazonan con mucho picante”.
Dylan: Yeah, that’s right. That’s why I don’t eat a lot of Mexican food. My stomach just… it can’t handle it.
Carlos: Well, can you stomach definition?
Dylan: “Sazonar: dar sazón a la comida”.
Carlos: I can think a related word. I already used it in my sample sentence. “Picante”, “spicy”.
Dylan: And we are at the end of the list.
Carlos: Cool. What we got?
Dylan: “Encima”.
Carlos: And adverb. Finally changing it up.
Dylan: And what does it mean?
Carlos: Well, “encima”, “above”, “in addition”. “Bueno, aquí te dejo el cuchillo encima de la tabla de picar”.
Dylan: Ok, “I’ll leave you the knife here, on top of the cutting board.” Look, “picar” was used again here.
Carlos: Good eye, Dylan, good eye. So the phrase “encima de” can be translated as “on top of”.
Dylan: Yes, like “las llaves están encima de la mesa”.
Carlos: “The keys are on top of the table.”
Dylan: Now, before you ask “encima: en lugar o puesto superior respecto de otro inferior”.
Carlos: Ok, so you knew I was going to ask that.
Dylan: Of course. We have a bunch of related phrases.
Carlos: I'm already ahead of you, like “arriba de”, “abajo de” and “al lado de”. So “on top of”, “under” and “next to”, right?
Dylan: Good work, Carlos.
Carlos: These were phrases that they drilled into my head. I’ll admit that I still mix them up at times.
Dylan: I bet you do.
Carlos: So, Dylan, we finished our discussion of prepositions, right?
Dylan: Yeah. Weren’t you paying attention? What grammar did you cover in the last lesson?
Carlos: We covered adverbs.
Dylan: Right. And what was the first thing that we learned about adverbs.
Carlos: Well, we learned that adverbs in Spanish are invariable.
Dylan: Which means…
Carlos: They do not show number or gender.
Dylan: ¿Y la función?
Carlos: Their function is to modify the meaning of verbs and the meaning of adjectives, and the meaning of other adverbs.
Dylan: We talked about different categories, right?

Lesson focus

Carlos: That’s right, and today we’re going to deal with adverbs of place. And adverbs of place look at the action of the verb in relation to the space within which it occurs.
Dylan: Right. Think, for example, of the phrase “caminamos”, “we walk”. What do we know from this action?
Carlos: What we know from this action is that the actors and the time when it occurs. What we don’t know… where it occurs. How do adverbs deal with this, Dylan?
Dylan: Adverbs of place define this location to make the action of verbs more precise and descriptive.
Carlos: Ok.
Dylan: So we can say, “caminamos detrás de la guía”. “We walk behind the guide.”
Carlos: And what does that do?
Dylan: Well, it gives the verbal action a sense of spatiality.
Carlos: Now, do we have space for a list of adverbs of place?
Dylan: I think we can manage that.
Carlos: Ok, let’s get it down.
Dylan: “Abajo”.
Carlos: “Below”, “downstairs.”
Dylan: “Aquí”, “acá”.
Carlos: “Here”, “over here.”
Dylan: “Adentro”.
Carlos: “In.”
Dylan: “Afuera”.
Carlos: “Outside.”
Dylan: “Ahíí”, “allá”
Carlos: “There”, “over there.”
Dylan: “Ante”.
Carlos: “Before.”
Dylan: “Arriba”.
Carlos: “Above”, “overhead”, “upstairs.”
Dylan: “Cerca”.
Carlos: “Close”, “near”, “nearby.”
Dylan: “Delante”.
Carlos: “Ahead.”
Dylan: “Dentro”.
Carlos: “Inside.”
Dylan: “Detrás”.
Carlos: “Behind”, “after”.
Dylan: “Donde”.
Carlos: “Where.”
Dylan: “Encima”
Carlos: “Above”, “on top.”
Dylan: “Enfrente”
Carlos: “In front of.”
Dylan: “Fuera”.
Carlos: “Outside.”
Dylan: “Lejos”.
Carlos: “Far away.”
Dylan: Now some adverbial locutions.
Carlos: Huh?
Dylan: You know, adverbial locutions are simply particular phrasal expressions that use adverbs.
Carlos: So why don’t you just say that?
Dylan: Because it sounds better that way.
Carlos: I guess you’re right.
Dylan: Of course I'm right. But listen, this list of adverbs of place of course are not comprehensive.
Carlos: No?
Dylan: No, but they should give a good idea of the general formation and usage.
Carlos: Sounds good. So we have a list of adverbial locutions.
Dylan: There we go. “A casa”.
Carlos: “Home.”
Dylan: “A la derecha”.
Carlos: “To the right.”
Dylan: “A la izquierda”.
Carlos: “To the left.”
Dylan: “De abajo”.
Carlos: “Downstairs.”
Dylan: “De aquí en adelante”.
Carlos: “Henceforth.”
Dylan: “De arriba hacia abajo”.
Carlos: “Downward.”
Dylan: “De donde”.
Carlos: “From where.”
Dylan: “De abajo hacia arriba”.
Carlos: “Upward.”
Dylan: “Dentro de”.
Carlos: “Within”, “inside.”
Dylan: “En alguna parte”.
Carlos: “Somewhere.”
Dylan: “En casa”.
Carlos: “At home.”
Dylan: “En cualquier parte”.
Carlos: “Anywhere.”
Dylan: “En el extranjero”.
Carlos: “Abroad.”
Dylan: “En cualquier momento”.
Carlos: “At any time”, “whenever.”
Dylan: “En ninguna parte”.
Carlos: “Nowhere.”
Dylan: “Al revés”.
Carlos: “Backwards.”
Dylan: “En todas partes”.
Carlos: “Everywhere.”
Dylan: “En otra parte”.
Carlos: “Elsewhere.”
Dylan: “Por ahí”.
Carlos: “That way”, “over there.”
Dylan: “Por aquí”.
Carlos: “This way”, “over here.” So we have a list of adverbs of place down and then we got the adverb locutions down. Now, if I'm not mistaken and if our previous lessons are any indication, next we’ll be dealing with…
Dylan: Sample sentences.
Carlos: I knew it.
Dylan: “Detrás de ese edificio está el banco”.
Carlos: “The bank is behind that building.” The adverb here being “detrás”, “behind”. I always find directions like that difficult.
Dylan: Here goes another one. “En todas partes del mundo a la gente le gusta comer bien”.
Carlos: “People like to eat well everywhere in the world.” This adverbial locution “en todas partes”, “everywhere”. [inaudible 00:12:08] either way.
Dylan: “Me puedes llamar en cualquier momento”.
Carlos: “You can call me at any time.” “En cualquier momento” , “any time”.
Dylan: “Vamos para allá, creo que el hotel está cerca”.
Carlos: “Let’s go that way, I think the hotel is nearby.” The adverb here being “allá”.
Dylan: And remember, “ahí, allá” both mean “there”, “over there”. They can be confusing.


Carlos: You know that has confused me in the past and probably still does in the present, but you know what guys, after that admission, that does it for today. Chao!
Dylan: Chao!


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