Dialogue

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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
Dylan: Hola, hola a todos, soy Dylan. ¿Cómo están?
Carlos: What’s going on Pod101 world? My name is Carlos. Beginner Series Season 3, Lesson number 18 - Link your past to the present in Spanish. It’s been centuries. What’s going on Pod101 world? My name is Carlos and I am joined here by Dylan.
Dylan: Hello everyone, and welcome back to SpanishPod101.com. ¿Cómo están todos?
Carlos: How is everybody doing today? Well, I know I am doing fine, Dylan, and how about you?
Dylan: Estoy muy bien. Gracias, Carlos.
Carlos: In this lesson you will learn about the preterit perfect tense.
Dylan: This conversation takes place on the internet.
Carlos: This conversation is between Julio and Sylvia.
Dylan: The speakers are friends, therefore the speakers will be speaking informally.
Carlos: Remember commenting each day.
Dylan: And posting in the forum are two great ways to get answers.
Carlos: Community members…
Dylan: And staff are all ready to help.
Carlos: Definitely take advantage of all of us, ok? Let’s listen to today’s conversation.
DIALOGUE
JULIO: Disculpa... ¿Usted es Silvia Herrera?... ¿de la generación 82?
SILVIA: ¿Julio? ¡Sí soy yo, han pasado siglos!
JULIO: No puedo creer que recién en Facebook nos hayamos encontrado.
SILVIA: Esto de Facebook sirve para encontrar gente.
JULIO: Tenemos tanto de que hablar... dígame, ¿qué ha sido de su vida?
JULIO: Excuse me...are you Silvia Herrera? ...from the class of '82?
SILVIA: Julio? Yeah, it's me! It's been centuries!
JULIO: I can't believe that just now in Facebook we have met up with each other.
SILVIA: This whole thing about Facebook is useful for finding people.
JULIO: We have so much to talk about...tell me, what have you been up to?
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Dylan: Wow, Facebook. I love it.
Carlos: I know you do, Dylan, I love it too. But, you’re always on it. It means I have to be on it to see that you are on it.
Dylan: Ha.
Carlos: It’s my biggest work distracter. But there was a study that says to improve productibility…
Dylan: Productivity?
Carlos: That word… that one.
Dylan: So you’re keeping an eye on me, that’s what going on, huh?
Carlos: I try. But Dylan has the internet been popular in Latin America for a long time now?
Dylan: Not so long, but it’s really… I think it’s grown immensely - super fast. Everybody has got it and ICE has given our high speed out to everybody.
Carlos: Well. guys, just so you know ICE with is spelled “ice” for the English speakers out there is the telecommunication government monopoly here, in Costa Rica.
Dylan: Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE).
Carlos: They have no kind of competition down here. No Verizon, no cable, no [inaudible 00:01:48], none of that stuff.
Dylan: Not yet.
Carlos: Not yet. Until the free trade agreement passes. Ok, guys, let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
VOCAB LIST
Dylan: “Generación”.
Carlos: “Generation”, “class.”
Dylan: “Ge-ne-ra-ción”, “generación”. “Pasar”.
Carlos: “To pass”, “to go by”, “to come by”, “to come.”
Dylan: “Pa-sar”, “pasar”. “Siglo”.
Carlos: “Century.”
Dylan: “Si-glo”, “siglo”. “Recién”.
Carlos: “Recently”, “newly”, “just.”
Dylan: “Re-cién”, “recién”. “Encontrar”.
Carlos: “To find”, “to meet with.”
Dylan: “En-con-trar”, “encontrar”. “Gente”.
Carlos: “People.”
Dylan: “Gen-te”, “gente”.
VOCAB AND PHRASE USAGE
Carlos: Ok, guys, let’s have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Dylan: The first word we’ll look at is “generación”.
Carlos: “Generación”.
Dylan: What a strong R there, Carlos?
Carlos: Thank you, was that correct?
Dylan: No.
Carlos: Man, “generación”.
Dylan: “Generación”.
Carlos: “Generación”.
Dylan: Very good.
Carlos: “Generación”, I’m so use to… “Generation”, sounds easy enough.
Dylan: But not so fast, “generación” does mean “generation” but it’s not that easy.
Carlos: Why not? “Generación”, “generation”. Open shut. Case closed.
Dylan: Were you not paying attention to the conversation?
Carlos: I was but...
Dylan: Escucha. What is the first question that Julio asked Sylvia?
Carlos: “Disculpa, ¿tú eres Sylvia Herrera, de la generación del 82?”
Dylan: And how did we translate that?
Carlos: “Excuse me, are you Sylvia Herrera, from the class of 82?”
Dylan: See, not so straight forward. In Latin America, “generación” is also translated as “class”.
Carlos: Not like “clase”.
Dylan: No, like “class of”. In this case, “class of 82.”
Carlos: Oh, in that case. “Yo me gradué en la generación de 1999”.
Dylan: You graduated in ‘99? That means that your class reunion is coming up Carlos.
Carlos: I don’t know… why? Ten years hardly seems enough time to gain valuable perspective on high school.
Dylan: But it would be fun.
Carlos: Well, I’ll send them a card from Costa Rica.
Dylan: You were from the 90s decade, “la década de los 90”.
Carlos: The decade, good slip in of a related word, Dylan.
Dylan: Glad you caught it. Next stop “pasar”.
Carlos: “Pasar”: “to pass”, “to go by”, “to come by”, “to come”. Lots of band fee a buck for one word.
Dylan: We heard it in our conversation being used in its past participle form.
Carlos: “Sí, soy yo, ¡han pasado siglos!”
Dylan: “Yeah, it’s me it’s been centuries.”
Carlos: It’s always crazy when a situation like that happens.
Dylan: It’s the beauty of the internet. But sometimes “it’s not good to remember the past.”
Carlos: True.
Dylan: “No es bueno recordar el pasado”.
Carlos: Sometimes it’s better to forget the past, but not always.
Dylan: But you can always dream of “el futuro”, “the future”.
Carlos: Or be happy with “the present”, “el presente”.
Dylan: Yeah.
Carlos: I try sometimes.
Dylan: Now try this one for size.
Carlos: “Siglo”, “century". I wouldn’t have known that if I hadn’t heard it first.
Dylan: Right. It was in our first example. “Sí, soy yo, han pasado siglos”. “Yeah, it’s me. It’s been centuries.” Has kind of a royal feel to it, huh?
Carlos: “Siglo”, yeah, kind of. Probably because it is attached to roman numerals most of the time.
Dylan: What century are we in now, Carlos?
Carlos: “Estamos en el siglo 21”.
Dylan: “The 21st century.”
Carlos: Although in some remote places, we are lucky to get to 19th.
Dylan: Hey, in Latin America, the 21st century can get left behind very quickly. Especially when the paved roads stop.
Carlos: Well, you can’t have a century without an “el año”, “the year”.
Dylan: ¿Y diez siglos es igual a…?
Carlos: “El milenio”, “the millennium”s.
Dylan: We recently just entered a new millennium. What an exciting time?
Carlos: That was almost ten years ago.
Dylan: But it is still recent, very recent.
Carlos: Alright, the adverb “recién”.
Dylan: “Recently”, “newly”, “just.”
Carlos: Ok.
Dylan: “No puedo creer que recién en Facebook nos hayamos encontrado”.
Carlos: “I can’t believe that just now, on Facebook, we have met up with each other.”
Dylan: It was a new recent development. Facebook isn’t that old.
Carlos: True.
Dylan: Here’s an example using our translation. “Camilo y Josefa se casaron hace dos días. Ellos están recién casados”.
Carlos: “Camilo and Josefa got married two days ago. They are recently married.” Could I say newlyweds?
Dylan: You could use the translation but that would probably run into some questions later.
Carlos: That’s the truth.
Dylan: There is another way to say it.
Carlos: You mean “recientemente”? “Recently”, you know I was wondering about the LY with “mente”.
Dylan: All the rules were meant to be broken Carlos.
Carlos: Noted.
Dylan: Next up, “encontrar”.
Carlos: “Encontrar”. I just get reminded of “encounter” with “encontrar”, so it makes it easy.
Dylan: Well, we also already heard an example sentence, “no puedo creer que recién en Facebook nos hayamos encontrado”.
Carlos: “I can’t believe that just now on Facebook we have met up with each other.”
Dylan: So we know the verb “encontrar” means…
Carlos: “To find”, “to meet with”, “to encounter.”
Dylan: Like when I am looking and looking and finally “¡ya encontré mis llaves!”.
Carlos: “I found my keys.” But wait, we can use “conocer” also, right?
Dylan: Good question. “Conocer” we only apply in this sense when we are meeting someone for the first time. “Conocí a Martín ayer”.
Carlos: “I met Martin yesterday.” Ok, so that’s the only time?
Dylan: The only time. You’re going to like our last word.
Carlos: Really?
Dylan: Yes, it’s going to remind you of a song.
Carlos: My God that could be many things. Shoot.
Dylan: “Gente”.
Carlos: Yes, a feminine noun that does remind me of a song “Mi gente” de Héctor Lavoe.
Dylan: You are Puerto Rican but not “el cantante”.
Carlos: Never claimed that title at all Dylan. Never claimed that title at all.
Dylan: And in this example from our conversation, we also have another example of our last word “encontrar”, only this time in the infinitive.
Carlos: Ok.
Dylan: “Esto de Facebook sirve para encontrar gente”.
Carlos: “This whole thing about Facebook is useful to finding people.”
Dylan: Yes, it definitely is. Carlos, give me a sample sentence using “gente” that is not a salsa song, please.
Carlos: “Hay mucha gente en la fiesta”.
Dylan: “There are a lot of people at the party.” Very textbook, Carlos.
Carlos: Sometimes Dylan textbook is necessary.
Dylan: “Gente” is plural, "the people”.
Carlos: Interesting enough, “La persona”, “the person”, is singular and a cognate. I wonder why.
Dylan: It’s a mystery, Carlos. But you know what’s not a mystery?
Carlos: What’s that?
Dylan: The preterit perfect tense.
Carlos: Ah, yes, the preterit perfect tense. You know we’re getting to the end of this season so we should be engaging in grammar point at this level.
LESSON FOCUS
Dylan: So what does the preterit perfect tense explain?
Carlos: The preterit perfect tense expresses an action in the past that is in some way linked to the present or that is near the present.
Dylan: And what do we know when using this tense?
Carlos: We know that this action took place before the moment of speech. But what we don’t know is when it stopped. That’s the catch.
Dylan: Right in some cases, the action especially when it expresses an emotion, can even flow into the present.
Carlos: You know, there is actually something different we have to do when forming the preterit perfect tense, right, Dylan?
Dylan: Right. It is a simple conjugation. There is a bit more to it. We use the present tense of the auxiliary verb “haber” and a participle.
Carlos: You know, I knew there was something, now what about the regulars?
Dylan: The only irregular form occurs only when the participle form is irregular.
Carlos: And what about “haber”?
Dylan: The forms of “haber” are the same no matter what kind of participle is used.
Carlos: So then we should focus on the participle.
Dylan: The regular participle in Spanish is formed by removing the infinitive ending and adding “-ado”, for verb of the first conjugation AR and “-ido” for verbs of the second ER and third IR conjugation.
Carlos: So let’s take a first conjugation AR verb first. “Contar”, “to count” or “to tell.”
Dylan: Ok, so if the infinitive is “contar”.
Carlos: It follows the rule that the participle is “contado”.
Dylan: Remember the participle stays the same no matter what. Just conjugate the auxiliary verb.
Carlos: Alright, so let’s go through with “contar”.
Dylan: “Yo he contado”.
Carlos: “I have counted”, “I have told.”
Dylan: “Tú has contado”.
Carlos: “You have counted”, “you have told.”
Dylan: “Él/ella/usted ha contado”.
Carlos: “He has counted”, “he has told”, “she has counted”, “she has told”, and “you have counted”, “you have told”, (formal).
Dylan: “Ha contado”.
Carlos: “It has counted” (neutral).
Dylan: “Nosotros hemos contado”.
Carlos: “We have counted”, “we have told.”
Dylan: “Vosotros habéis contado”.
Carlos: “You all have counted”, “you all have told” (informal).
Dylan: “Ellos/ellas/ustedes han contado”.
Carlos: “They have counted”, “they have told”, (masculine), “they have counted”, “they have told”, (feminine), “you all have counted”, “you all have told”, (formal).
Dylan: “Han contado”.
Carlos: “They have counted”, “they have told”, neutral.
Dylan: Now, let’s take a second conjugation ER verb, “correr”.
Carlos: “Correr”, “to run”, infinitive “correr”.
Dylan: “Yo he corrido”.
Carlos: “I have run.”
Dylan: “Tú has corrido”.
Carlos: “You have run.”
Dylan: “Él/ella/usted ha corrido”.
Carlos: “He has run, she has run, you have run” (formal).
Dylan: “Ha corrido”.
Carlos: “It has run” (neutral).
Dylan: “Nosotros hemos corrido”.
Carlos: “We have run.”
Dylan: “Vosotros habéis corrido”.
Carlos: “You all have run” (informal).
Dylan: “Ellos/ellas/ustedes han corrido”.
Carlos: “The have run, (masculine), they have run, (feminine), and you all have run” (formal).
Dylan: “Han corrido”.
Carlos: “They have run” (neutral).
Dylan: Not that hard really all you have to focus on is knowing the participle.
Carlos: True, but let me pick the last one, a third conjugation IR verb. I know a favorite example “dormir”, “to sleep.”
Dylan: “Dormir”, infinitive.
Carlos: And “dormido”, participle.
Dylan: “Yo he dormido”.
Carlos: “I have slept.”
Dylan: “Tú has dormido”.
Carlos: “You have slept.”
Dylan: “Él/ella/usted ha dormido”.
Carlos: “He has slept, she has slept, you have slept” (formal).
Dylan: “Ha dormido”.
Carlos: “It has slept” (neutral).
Dylan: “Nosotros hemos dormido”.
Carlos: “We have slept.”
Dylan: “Vosotros habéis dormido”.
Carlos: “You all have slept” (informal).
Dylan: “Ellos/ellas/ustedes han dormido”.
Carlos: “They have slept (masculine), they have slept (feminine), you all have slept” (formal).
Dylan: “Han dormido”.
Carlos: “They have slept” (neutral). Now, how about one sample sentence for each of these verbs? “contar”, “to count” or “to tell”, “correr”, “to run” and “dormir” in the preterit perfect tense ?
Dylan: “¿Les has contado lo que pasó?”
Carlos: “Have you told them about what happened?”
Dylan: “He corrido desde mi casa hasta la tuya”.
Carlos: “I have run from my house to yours.”
Dylan: “Han dormido casi todo el día”.
Carlos: “They have slept almost all day.”
Dylan: The formation of the participle is key, because it’s used for all of the compound tenses.
Carlos: And it looks to me that it is equally as important to learn the forms of the auxiliary verb “haber” as its form are also used in all the compound forms.
Dylan: The participle can also be used as an adjective, in which case the endings must be in agreement with the nouns they modify.
Carlos: What do you mean?
Dylan: For example, “han dormido” means “they have slept”, but “ellos están dormidos” means that “they are asleep”. Only when a participle is used as an adjective does its ending change. When it is part of a compound verb it always ends with O.
OUTRO
Carlos: Ok, Dylan, thanks for clarifying. Ok, guys, you know what - that just about does it for today. Ok, some of our listeners already know about the most powerful tool in SpanishPod101.com.
Dylan: Line by line audio.
Carlos: The perfect tool for rapidly improving listening comprehension.
Dylan: By listening to lines of the conversation again and again.
Carlos: Listen until every word and syllable becomes clear. Basically, we break down the dialogue in comprehensible bite-sized sentences.
Dylan: You can try the line by line audio in the Premium Learning Center at SpanishPod101.com

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12 Comments

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SpanishPod101.com
Wednesday at 6:30 pm
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Thanks to Herman Pearl for the music in today's lesson! They just had an article in that said sites like Facebook and Hi5 are hurting the prospects of school reunions. What do you think?

SpanishPod101.comVerified
Sunday at 5:21 pm
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Hola Connie,


Thank you for your positive feedback!


Let us know if you have any questions.


Saludos,

Cristiane

Team SpanishPod101.com

Connie
Sunday at 8:09 am
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Buena leccion, gracias.

SpanishPod101.comVerified
Monday at 12:44 pm
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Hola Nicole,


Thank you for your question.

Here we use the present perfect subjunctive which is used to describe past actions that are connected to the present, as well as actions that will have happened by a certain point in the future. In the other hand "hemos encontrado" is in present perfect which is used to talk about things that started in the past and which continue in the present.


Saludos,

Carla

Team SpanishPod101.com

Nicole
Thursday at 9:00 am
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I have a question! Why does Julio say "hayamos encontrado" instead of "hemos encontrado"?

SpanishPod101.comVerified
Sunday at 12:29 am
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Hola Gloria,


Yes! that happens a lot.

But well, now a days many people understand both.


Saludos,

Carla

Team SpanishPod101.com

Gloria
Tuesday at 10:01 pm
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Hola Carla,


Thank you for sharing your story. I understand because English is my native tongue. An example is that recently I looked at what I wanted to buy and I could remember that it was an AGUACATE but I forgot the word AVOCADO.

SpanishPod101.comVerified
Monday at 1:50 am
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Hola Gloria,


Thank you for sharing.

It's true, knowing or learning several languages can mixed up our heads.

It happens to me when I talk in Spanish (which i'm native) that I don't remember how to say something in my native language but I do remember how to in english. So I mix it a little sometimes. And when I started learning Japanese and living in Japan me and my Spanish speaking friends found ourselves talking in Spanish, English and Japanese.


I think is a natural thing that happens when you learn one than one language.:sunglasses:


Saludos,

Carla

Team SpanishPod101.com

Gloria
Friday at 4:58 am
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Correción: Conocí a una persona que HA HABLADO (sin la letra n) español y francés por muchos años. Hago errores todo el tiempo en inglés también. !Es trágico!

Gloria
Friday at 4:50 am
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Aprendo el español, el francés y el alemán al mismo tiempo. A veces me siento una persona muy confundida. Pienso en una palabra de otra lengua.


Al mismo tiempo, para me, el español y el francés son más fáciles de aprender juntos por las similitades entre los dos idiomas. Por ejemplo, busco los cognados.


El hecho es que yo necesito suprimir (o tachar) la última lengua usada de la mente antes de empezar otra lengua.


Conocí a una persona que ha hablando español y francés por muchos años. Ella empieza a hablar español y hacía el fin de la conversación está hablando francés.


Yo hablaba con una persona esta mañana cuando ella me dijo de la historia de su hija. La mama hablaba español e inglés con su hija. Su papá le hablaba alemán e inglés a ella. Un día la niña dijo una frase a su mama usando palabras de los tres idiomas en la misma frase como “Ich want leche.” que significa “Yo quiero leche”.


Tal vez es totalmente normal entre los que aprenden dos or más idiomas.

SpanishPod101.comVerified
Saturday at 12:21 pm
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Hola Jane,


Gracias por tu comentario.

Para algunas personas, estudiar español y francés al mismo tiempo puede ser confuso.

Como te va a ti?

Los latinos hablamos un poco mas rápido cuando hablamos con nuestros conocidos que con personas nuevas.


Saludos,

Carla

Team SpanishPod101.com