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Dylan: Hola, hola everybody, it’s Dylan. ¿Cómo están?
Carlos: What’s going on, Pod101 world? My name is Carlos - Using the Spanish periphrasis, “It’s going to rain”. In this lesson, you will learn about Spanish periphrasis.
Dylan: This conversation takes place on a beach.
Carlos: This conversation is between Andrea and Pablo.
Dylan: And the speakers are friends, therefore the speakers will be speaking informally.
Carlos: Let’s listen to the conversation.
PABLO: Me cayó una gota en la cabeza...
ANDREA: Ohhh nooo va a llover...
PABLO: ¡Qué vacaciones! debajo de una palmera con lluvia...
ANDREA: Pablo, ¿qué dijimos del optimismo?
PABLO: Sí, sí... que íbamos a ser optimistas.
ANDREA: Además mojarse bajo la lluvia puede ser romántico.
PABLO: Tiene razón, ¡vamos!
PABLO: A raindrop just fell on my head.
ANDREA: Ohhh nooo! It's going to rain...
PABLO: Some vacations these are...under a palm tree with rain...
ANDREA: Pablo, what did we say about optimism?
PABLO: Yeah, yeah...that we were going to be optimistic.
ANDREA: What's more, getting wet in the rain can be romantic.
PABLO: You're right, let's go!
Dylan: Aw, how sweet.
Carlos: Looks like Andrea’s the big person, with all the optimistic feelings in the world. But you know, sometimes even the beach, even during the rainy season, it’s kind of cool.
Dylan: It’s always cool the beach, Carlos.
Carlos: It’s like a flash thunderstorm. It’s a lot different from the Central Valley, I know how it is here.
Dylan: That’s true. The beach, rainy season, sun set… Oh, just the best.
Carlos: Can’t go wrong, these guys have the right idea. Ok, guys, let’s take a look at the vocabulary for this lesson.
Dylan: “Gota”.
Carlos: “Drop”, “rain drop.”
Dylan: “Go-ta”, “gota”. “Llover”.
Carlos: “To rain.”
Dylan: “Llo-ver”, “llover”. “Palmera”.
Carlos: “Palm tree”, “palm.”
Dylan: “Pal-me-ra”, “palmera”. “Lluvia”.
Carlos: “Rain.”
Dylan: “Llu-via”, “lluvia”. “Mojarse”.
Carlos: “To get wet.”
Dylan: “Mo-jar-se”, “mojarse”. “Romántico”.
Carlos: “Romantic.”
Dylan: “Ro-mán-ti-co”, “romántico”.
Carlos: Ok, guys, Let’s have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Dylan: The first word we'll look at is “gota”.
Carlos: “Gota”, a feminine noun, “rain drop”. Rain drops keep falling on my head, keep falling…
Dylan: Ah, ok, Carlos, ok, ok, ok. Go on, continue.
Carlos: I was just reminded of the commercial from when I was a kid, where they used that song.
Dylan: Well, it sounded pretty up beat.
Carlos: It was, it was like that Gene Kelly movie, “Singing in the Rain”?
Dylan: Wow, bringing it back with the classic musicals, Carlos.
Carlos: Shh, don’t tell anybody but our audience.
Dylan: I won’t. You neither, audience.
Carlos: But what a drag. Rain on vacation. “Me cayó una gota en la cabeza”.
Dylan: “A rain drop just fell on my head.” That is a bad feeling if you’re stuck outside.
Carlos: Yeah it is, especially if it’s cold out. You know, at least there’s some place warm.
Dylan: Man, “pero ayer llovió mucho, eran gotas gigantes”.
Carlos: “Yesterday it rained a lot, there were giant rain drops.” And that isn’t just a sample sentence, it’s the truth. It’s raining right now, too. You know, rainy season is no fun.
Dylan: Do you know what the verb “gotear” means?
Carlos: “To drop”?
Dylan: That would make sense, wouldn’t it? No, Pablo and Andrea aren’t in a downpour. It’s drizzling.
Carlos: So “gotear”, “to drizzle”.
Dylan: And “to drip”. Our next vocabulary word could even be considered a related word.
Carlos: What is it?
Dylan: Another verb?
Carlos: ¿“Llover”?
Dylan: “To rain”, exactly.
Carlos: You know funny thing, audience, once again, as we are recording this we are under a torrential downpour.
Dylan: I said the same thing as Andrea said earlier when I left my house, “¡oh no, va a llover!”.
Carlos: “Oh no, it’s going to rain!” Although, to reuse a joke, in Costa Rica eight months out of the year rain isn’t a threat, it’s a promise.
Dylan: “Sí, en Costa Rica, Panamá, Nicaragua, llueve mucho.”
Carlos: “Yeah, in Costa Rica, Panama, Nicaragua it rains a lot.”
Dylan: Wow, this lesson is going to be like a thread.
Carlos: And why is that?
Dylan: Ok, first a related word that isn’t obvious. Since there isn’t a torrential downpour, what do we have?
Carlos: Well, the feminine noun “llovizna”, “drizzle”. And that word always reminds me of like a Russian for some reason, I don't know, like “llovizna”. Like I think it could be a girl’s name.
Dylan: Well, now what other feminine noun do we have that is related?
Carlos: The feminine noun “lluvia”, “rain”.
Dylan: Which is our next vocab word.
Carlos: Pablo is not happy about it when he says “¡qué vacaciones!, debajo de una palmera con lluvia”.
Dylan: “Some vacations these are, under a palm tree with rain.”
Carlos: Man, I hope there isn’t any thunder. That’s not really good place to be in a thunderstorm, under a giant palm tree.
Dylan: But if you are in a safe, warm place, “me gusta caer la lluvia”.
Carlos: And “I love to see the rain fall too.”
Dylan: I have a funky related word for you.
Carlos: Funky you say, really?
Dylan: Well, have you ever heard the masculine noun “el aguacero”?
Carlos: No. but that puts a funny imagine on my head, like some sort of Latin superhero with like water powers and a sombrero like “soy…”, what is the word?
Dylan: “Aguacero”.
Carlos: “¡Soy aguacero!”
Dylan: To the rescue!
Carlos: I'm serious, I think I might consider it. I’m “aguacero”! Run, criminals!
Dylan: And what would the sidekick’s name be?
Carlos: And his sidekick “palmera”.
Dylan: “Palmera”, that’s great.
Carlos: That would be a good sidekick name, wouldn’t it?
Dylan: Yeah.
Carlos: “Palmera”, feminine noun, “palm tree”.
Dylan: Right. That’s not such a safe place in a thunderstorm.
Carlos: Once again, “debajo de una palmera con lluvia”.
Dylan: “Under a palm tree with rain.”
Carlos: That does have a nice mental image though.
Dylan: Well, what do you immediately think of when you hear the word “palmera” or “palm trees”?
Carlos: “La playa”, “the beach”.
Dylan: Why?
Carlos: Well, “en la playa hay muchas palmeras”.
Dylan: Right. “On the beach there are a lot of palm trees.”
Carlos: With those great, big “hojas”, “leaves”.
Dylan: I like the palm fields down in the south, though.
Carlos: The African palms, yeah. Those look like a farm. And what are they for again?
Dylan: “Aceite de palmera”.
Carlos: Oh, right. “Palm oil.” I wonder how they get that.
Dylan: I have no idea.
Carlos: Ok, let’s move on then. Next up…
Dylan: A reflexive verb.
Carlos: Which?
Dylan: “Mojarse”, “to get wet”.
Carlos: This is where Andrea is starting to show her romantic side.
Dylan: Right. You heard what she said, “además, mojarse bajo la lluvia puede ser romántico”.
Carlos: “Once more, getting wet in the rain can be romantic.”
Dylan: I agree with her, it can be.
Carlos: But it’s definitely a slippery slope there, Dylan.
Dylan: “Ayer llovió mucho y como no tenía paraguas me mojé”.
Carlos: “Yesterday it rained a lot, and since I didn’t have an umbrella I got wet.” That’s a common situation.
Dylan: Well, do you even own an umbrella?
Carlos: No, I was like that in New York too. I'm just stubborn, I guess.
Dylan: You know, I just walked here and the rain got me, and I had to buy an umbrella on the side of the street, on the corner for 500 “colones”.
Carlos: They make a little bit more… they make money here like that, that’s good.
Dylan: Yeah, I mean they wait for it to start raining and they’re out there.
Carlos: You know, it’s the same way in New York too, they have all these sales men.
Dylan: Yeah. Well, at least it’s a little warmer here.
Carlos: That’s true, you know. And the rain is nice if you don’t get caught in it.
Dylan: Do you know the adjective form of the verb “mojarse”?
Carlos: That would be “mojado” or “mojada”, “wet”, something that my shoes are always now.
Dylan: That’s not a good look, Carlos.
Carlos: Well, no, it’s not a very warm and fuzzy feeling.
Dylan: But our last word does inspire that.
Carlos: Oh yeah?
Dylan: Yes, “romántico”.
Carlos: Queue the violin music.
Dylan: Queue overly dramatic pronunciation.
Carlos: “Romántico…”
Dylan: “Además, mojarse bajo la lluvia puede ser romántico”.
Carlos: “Romántico”. “Once more, getting wet in the rain can be romantic.” “Yo prefiero ver películas de acción que las películas románticas”.
Dylan: Yeah, right. You tell the truth, Carlos. You like romantic movies more than those action films.
Carlos: No, and if it doesn’t have an explosion I don’t want to see it.
Dylan: That’s why I heard you cried when you watched ‘The Notebook’.
Carlos: That’s different, that’s fine cinema.
Dylan: Carlos is a classic “romántico”, “romantic”.
Carlos: Right, “romántico” can also be a masculine noun.
Dylan: Relating the same word in different context.
Carlos: Beautiful, but you can't say the word “romántico” without thinking of…
Dylan: “Amor…” Now let’s switch gears.
Carlos: That was abrupt.

Lesson focus

Dylan: Has to be that way sometimes. Today we study how to express future actions using “la perífrasis”.
Carlos: Wait, I know that, “la perífrasis”. A unit made up of one verb in a personal forma and another in an impersonal form.
Dylan: Good, you remember. Do you know when this way of speaking usually takes place
Carlos: Usually we are speaking in the future.
Dylan: Correct.
Carlos: So let’s conjugate.
Dylan: Here. We conjugate the personal verb “ir”, “to go”, and then we add the preposition A and the infinitive of the future action to be carried out.
Carlos: Now, unlike the absolute future tense, which expresses a definitive statement that we will do something, we are expressing “el futuro de intención”, “the future of intention” which shows our intention to carry out an action with less absolute certainty.
Dylan: And there are rules to build this.
Carlos: How do we build this structure.
Dylan: In order to build this structure we need to know the conjugation of the verb “ir”, “to go”, in both the imperfect past tense and the present tense.
Carlos: Good thing I know that, but what else?
Dylan: You like formulas, right?
Carlos: Hated them in math, love them in Spanish.
Dylan: Well, here you go. “Ir”, personal verb plus A plus infinitive impersonal verb.
Carlos: Let’s go through the present tense.
Dylan: Be my guest.
Carlos: “Yo voy a, tu vas a, él va a, ella va a, usted va a, nosotros vamos a, vosotros vais a, ellos van a, ellas van a, ustedes van a”. So everybody’s going to go somewhere.
Dylan: And the imperfect?
Carlos: I'm not scared. “Yo iba a, tú ibas a, él iba a, ella iba a, usted iba a, nosotros íbamos a, vosotros ibais a, ellos/ellas iban a, ustedes iban a”.
Dylan: Now, which one did we hear in our conversation today?
Carlos: When Andrea is trying to cheer up Pablo and says “que íbamos a ser optimistas”.
Dylan: “That we were going to be optimistic.”
Carlos: So the formula is set, “ir/íbamos” imperfect, A plus infinitive, “ser”. “We are going to be”.
Dylan: Nice, but let’s get some others under our belt.
Carlos: Sounds good.
Dylan: “Voy a caminar en el parque”.
Carlos: “I'm going to walk in the park.”
Dylan: “Vas a hacer tu tarea”.
Carlos: “You are going to do your homework.”
Dylan: Here, I have something to check out.
Carlos: Ok.
Dylan: Contrast this to the following use of the absolute future. “Iré a caminar en el parque”, “I will go walk in the park”. “Harás tu tarea”, “You will do your homework”.
Carlos: Ok, I see the difference.
Dylan: Clear, right?
Carlos: Crystal.
Dylan: Now observe the difference between present tense and imperfect past tense conjugation of the verb “ir”, “to go”.
Carlos: Ok.
Dylan: “Yo voy a trabajar”.
Carlos: “I am going to work.”
Dylan: “Yo iba a trabajar”.
Carlos: “I was going to work.”
Dylan: “Tú vas a venir”.
Carlos: “You are going to come.”
Dylan: “Tú ibas a venir”.
Carlos: “You were going to come.”
Dylan: “Ella va a dormir”.
Carlos: “She is going to sleep.”
Dylan: “Ella iba a dormir”.
Carlos: “She was going to sleep.”
Dylan: “Nosotros vamos a jugar”.
Carlos: “We are going to play.”
Dylan: “Nosotros íbamos a jugar”.
Carlos: “We were going to play.”
Dylan: “Vosotros vais a comer algo”.
Carlos: “You all are going to eat something.”
Dylan: “Vosotros ibais a comer algo”.
Carlos: “You all were going to eat something.”
Dylan: “Ellos van a correr”.
Carlos: “They are going to run.”
Dylan: “Ellos iban a correr”.
Carlos: “They were going to run.” Man, we went through all the conjugations there.
Dylan: Twice.
Carlos: Remember that “ir”, “to go”, is referred to as the personal verb. In this case because we are conjugating it to show who is going to carry out the impersonal action, the attached infinitive. Dylan, other than the obvious reasons, why is it important to learn this construction?
Dylan: There are two reasons why this periphrastic construction is so important to learn. One, it’s very, very common in every day speech since this expresses a future tense in a less direct way than the absolute future. And secondly, it’s so important to learn because the verb “ir” is very, very irregular, which means that you’re going to have to memorize the forms.


Carlos: You know what, those are two excellent reasons. What do you think, audience? Ok, guys, you know what? That just about does it for today.
Dylan: Bye, everybody!
Carlos: ¡Nos vemos, chao!


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