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Lesson Transcript

¡Bienvenidos a Spanishpod101.com!
Natalia: Buenos días, soy Natalia.
Carlos: What’s going on? My name is Carlos. Beginner series season two, lesson number nineteen.
Natalia: “Good God in heaven and all the angels.”
Carlos: What’s going on and welcome to beginner series season two at spanishpod101.com where we study modern Spanish in a fun and educational format.
Natalia: So brush up on the Spanish that you started learning long ago and start learning today.
Carlos: Thanks for being here with us for this lesson. Naty, what are we looking at today?
Natalia: Verb formation.
Carlos: Verb formation. Fun yet practical.
Natalia: Well, the preterit tense of the indicative mood.
Carlos: So I assume it’s being used in the conversation with…
Natalia: Mariana and the guy selling lottery.
Carlos: So it’s formal, right?
Natalia: Yes.
Carlos: Now, if you are listening on an iPod...
Natalia: Or an iTouch or an iPhone...
Carlos: Click on the center button of the iPod or tap the screen on an iTouch or iPhone, to see the notes for this lesson while you listen.
Natalia: Read along while you listen.
Carlos: This technique will help you remember faster, okay? Let’s get into today’s conversation.
PRESENTADOR: Damas y caballeros, ¡llegó el gran día del sorteo!
MARIANA: ¡Al fin llegó el día!
PRESENTADOR: El número ganador de seiscientos millones de colones es...
MARIANA: Veintidós… ¡vamos veintidós!
PRESENTADOR: ¡El número Veintidós! ¡Felicidades al nuevo millonario!
MARIANA: ¡¡Santo Dios del cielo y todos los ángeles!! ¿Dijo veintidós de verdad...? ¿mi veintidós?
PRESENTADOR: Repito… el número veintidós.
MARIANA: ¡Ay, no puede ser! ¡Gané, gané, gané!
ANNOUNCER: Ladies and gentlemen, the big day of the lottery has arrived!
MARIANA: The day has finally come!
ANNOUNCER: The winning number for the six-hundred million Colones is…
MARIANA: Twenty two …come on twenty two!
ANNOUNCER: Number twenty two ! Congratulations to the new millionaire!
MARIANA: Good God in Heaven and all the angels!!! Did he say twenty-two? My twenty-two?
ANNOUNCER: I repeat… number twenty-two.
MARIANA: Ah, this can’t be! I won, I won, I won!
Carlos: Naty, what would you do if you won the lottery?
Natalia: Oh my God! What would I not do? I would get a massive workshop, I will get a new house, I would travel, I would probably give money to my family, I would buy you a pen...
Carlos: A pen?
Natalia: I would buy you a journal. You said you needed a journal.
Carlos: Yes.
Natalia: What would you do if you won the lottery?
Carlos: Tell nobody.
Natalia: Tell nobody, they would know, Carlos.
Carlos: No, they wouldn’t.
Natalia: Yes, like “why Carlos…?”
Carlos: I would live exactly the same way I live now.
Natalia: Yes, I would like to see you with sixty million dollars to see if you would live the same way.
Carlos: I would exactly, no one would know a thing. I would just be calm about life.
Natalia: Oh sure, sure, sure.
Carlos: I walk around with no problems, yes, yes, yes.
Natalia: Hello, I can see you like imagine the house you would get. Carlos, how are you able to afford seventy thousand books in just one amazon visit?
Carlos: They are on loan. And pay no attention to the villa over there it’s not mine, I just happen to sleep there sometimes.
Natalia: It just says Carlos’ villa but that’s another Carlos.
Carlos: It’s like my restaurant “Donde Carlos”. Alright, you know what? It’s time to move on to the vocabulary list in your pdf lesson guide. Hoy vamos a empezar con un sustantivo que puede ser masculino o femenino y también puede ser adjetivo.
Natalia: “Ganador, ganadora”.
Carlos: “Winner.”
Natalia: “Ga-na-dor, ga-na-do-ra”, “ganador, ganadora”.
Carlos: Y un ejemplo sería...
Natalia: “¿Quién fue el ganador del sorteo?”
Carlos: “Who was the winner of the lottery?” La próxima palabra que vamos a estudiar es otro sustantivo femenino.
Natalia: “Felicidad”.
Carlos: “Happiness”, “congratulations.”
Natalia: “Fe-li-ci-dad”, “felicidad”.
Carlos: Como por ejemplo...
Natalia: “El vicio es un error de cálculo en la búsqueda de la felicidad”.
Carlos: “Vice is a miscalculation in the search for happiness.” Esta vez tenemos un adjetivo que puede usarse también como sustantivo masculino o femenino.
Natalia: “Santo, santa”.
Carlos: “Holy Saint.”
Natalia: “San-to, san-ta”, “santo, santa”.
Carlos: Contextualicemoslo.
Natalia: Contextualicemoslo así. “Eres un santo por todo lo que has hecho por mí”.
Carlos: “You are a saint for doing everything that you have for me.” Sigamos al verbo...
Natalia: “Repetir”.
Carlos: “To repeat.”
Natalia: “Re-pe-tir”, “repetir”.
Carlos: A ver otro ejemplo...
Natalia: “¿Puedes repetirlo, por favor?”
Carlos: “Can you repeat that please?” La penúltima palabra de hoy es un sustantivo masculino.
Natalia: “Ángel”.
Carlos: Angel.
Natalia: “Án-gel”, “ángel”.
Carlos: Como por ejemplo...
Natalia: “No me vayas a decir que eres un ángel”.
Carlos: “Don’t go telling me that you are an angel.” La última palabra de hoy es el verbo...
Natalia: “Ganar”.
Carlos: “To win”, “to earn”, “to gain.”
Natalia: “Ga-nar”, “ganar”.
Carlos: Y un ejemplo más.
Natalia: “Las colonias ganaron su libertad de España”.
Carlos: “The colonies want their freedom from Spain.”
Natalia: Carlos, time for today’s pronunciation tip. Let’s focus on pronouncing multiple syllables in a single word like “felicidades”.
Carlos: “Felicidades”.
Natalia: Right now, notice where the stress falls on the second to last syllable, “felicidades”.
Carlos: “Felicidades”. That’s not so hard.
Natalia: Did I say it was going to be?
Carlos: No, but you know, whatever. Well look, look, let’s take a closer look at some of the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Natalia: The first word phrase we’ll look at is “ganar”.
Carlos: “Ganar”.
Natalia: This “ar” verb has a few different meanings. “To earn”, “to win”, “to beat”, “to gain.”
Carlos: But which meaning was used in today’s conversation?
Natalia: “¡Ay, no puede ser! ¡Gané, gané, gané!”
Carlos: “Ah this can’t be! I won, I won, I won!” What about a related word?
Natalia: “Ganancias”, “earnings”, “income.”
Carlos: Next up?
Natalia: “Ganador”. Check this out, someone who “gana” is a “ganador” hence a “winner.”
Carlos: Makes sense.
Natalia: So this can be the masculine noun “ganador” or the feminine noun “ganadora” or it can be used as an adjective as we saw in today’s conversation.
Carlos: Okay.
Natalia: “El número ganador de seiscientos millones de colones es…”
Carlos: “The winning number for the six hundred million colones is…”
Natalia: “Ganador” can also be related to the verb “ganar”, “to win.”
Carlos: And then?
Natalia: “Felicidad”.
Carlos: “Felicidad”.
Natalia: Now a feminine noun which means “happiness.” But when we use it in the plural, it becomes “congratulations.”
Carlos: Wait, wait. So does this mean that when we congratulate someone in Spanish we are saying “happiness’s”?
Natalia: Maybe in your mind, Carlos.
Carlos: And in today’s conversation?
Natalia: Well, “¡Felicidades al nuevo millonario!”
Carlos: “Congratulations to the new millionaire.” You know that’s something I’ve always wanted to hear and not say.
Natalia: Carlos, I can understand that but you know well. The adjective “feliz”, “happy”, the adverb “felizmente”, “happily”, the adjective “infeliz”, “unhappy”, are related words.
Carlos: You know I’ve heard the next word.
Natalia: “Santo”.
Carlos: Yes, “santo”, that’s it.
Natalia: Well, this word can be used as either an adjective or a noun. Masculine “santo” or feminine “santa”.
Carlos: You know I imagine it has a lot of meanings.
Natalia: Well, there’s a couple you know. “Perfecto y libre de toda culpa” or “sagrado e inviolable”.
Carlos: Okay and how was it used in today’s conversation?
Natalia: “¡¡Santo Dios del cielo y todos los ángeles!!”
Carlos: “Good God in heaven and all the angels!” And the related words?
Natalia: The masculine noun “santuario”, “sanctuary”, or the feminine noun which you might not feel free to address me by “santidad”, “holiness.”
Carlos: Wow.
Natalia: Carlos, let me be. An Angel, “ángel”.
Carlos: “Ángel”, you mean like Los Angeles?
Natalia: Los Angeles.
Carlos: Los Angeles. That’s a good way to remember it. The city of angels.
Natalia: Don’t forget to accent the “a” or else the grammar goddess will frown up on you and you’ll have a lot worse than a joke.
Carlos: Listen, you heard her, learn how to accent. She’s really a stickler on this.
Natalia: Okay you know, back to the conversation. “¡¡Santo Dios del cielo y todos los ángeles!!”
Carlos: “Good God in heaven and all the angels.”
Natalia: That sounds like my grandmother. Something my grandmother would say. But you know in our related words, adjective “angélico” or “evangelio”, “gospel.”
Carlos: Alright, be sure to stick around for today’s grammar point coming up next. Naty, I’m hungry, what’s on our grammar plate today?

Lesson focus

Natalia: Verb formation.
Carlos: My favorite, but what about verb formation specifically?
Natalia: The preterit tense of the indicative mood for regular verbs.
Carlos: Now do we have a verb that we are focusing on?
Natalia: “Ganar” and in this sense “gané”.
Carlos: “Gané”.
Natalia: “Gané”.
Carlos: “Gané”.
Natalia: That’s what you just said.
Carlos: Okay, I know I was just practicing my accent. I told you about her being a stickler on that.
Natalia: Carlos, where would you like to start?
Carlos: Well Naty, just how do we use the preterit tense?
Natalia: Well, the preterit tense expresses an action prior to the present or to another action.
Carlos: So an action completed before the present moment.
Natalia: Exactly, like “I saw him two days ago.”
Carlos: Or “I spoke with her while you were working.” Now how do we form the preterit tense for regular verbs?
Natalia: To form the preterit tense for regular verbs, we first must move the “ar”, “er” or “ir” ending to get to the root of the verb. And then we add one of the correct preterit endings. The preterit endings were all regular “er” and “ir” verbs are identical.
Carlos: Well, that makes things a little easier.
Natalia: A little bit but let’s go over the singular preterit formation of “ganar” first. Actually no Carlos, you should do it.
Carlos: Okay wait, wait. Well, first “ganar” is an “ar” verb so we’d already looked at that and we said that the preterit endings are the same for the “ir” and “er” verbs. So let’s see if we can get the “ar” verbs out of there. So that would be “yo gané”, “I won”, “tú ganaste”, “you won”, “él ganó”, “he won.”
Natalia: And the plural?
Carlos: “Nosotros ganamos”, “we won”, “vosotros ganasteis”, “you all won” and “ellos ganaron”, “they won.” How is that?
Natalia: It was good.
Carlos: Okay, how about some examples?
Natalia: “¿Cuánto ganaste ayer?”
Carlos: “How much did you earn yesterday?”
Natalia: Let’s try another verb.
Carlos: Okay, which?
Natalia: “Aprender”.
Carlos: “To learn”, got that.
Natalia: So conjugate, man.
Carlos: “Yo aprendí”, “I learned”, “tú aprendiste”, “you learned”, “él aprendió”, “he learned.”
Natalia: Do you think they’ll let me bring a ruler? That would be cool. Carlos, conjugate!
Carlos: Wow.
Natalia: How about plural?
Carlos: “Nosotros aprendimos”, “we learned”, “vosotros aprendisteis”, “you all learned”, “ellos aprendieron”, “they learned.” And how about you contribute some examples, miss?
Natalia: “Aprendisteis a tomar el metro hace tiempo”.
Carlos: “You all learned to take the subway al while back.”
Natalia: “Y tú, hijito, ¿de quién aprendió esas vulgaridades?”
Carlos: “And where did you, little boy, learn all those expletives?”
Natalia: Okay, so we’ve done first conjugation “ganar”, “to win”, second conjugation “aprender” and now we are missing one more third conjugation, a regular “ir” verb. “I pick”, “decidir”.
Carlos: “Decide”. “Yo decidí”, “I decided”, “tú decidiste”, “you decided”, “él decidió”, “he decided.”
Natalia: And plural?
Carlos: “Nosotros decidimos”, “we decided”, “vosotros decidisteis”, “you all decided”, “ellos decidieron”, “they decided.” Good?
Natalia: Perfect.
Carlos: Oh well, now your turn.
Natalia: “Decidieron ir a la playa a pesar de las inclemencias del tiempo”.
Carlos: “They decided to go to the beach despite the inclement weather.”
Natalia: “¿Cuándo decidiste mudarte a Costa Rica?”
Carlos: “When did you decide to move to Costa Rica?”
Natalia: So in today’s grammar point, we studied that the preterit tense of the indicative mood and learned how it’s used and how it’s formed. Now we are going to give you five sentences in Spanish. Each will contain a verb, but this verb will not be conjugated to the preterit tense. What you have to do is change it to the preterit tense while maintaining the person and number. Ready?
Carlos: Let’s do this!
Natalia: Número uno, “¿a qué hora anunciarán el número ganador?”. Número dos, “tienes que decidir”. Número tres, “te llamo a la misma hora que siempre”. Número cuatro, “¿cuántas veces has cometido el mismo error?”. Número cinco, “trabajáis todo el día preparando la propuesta”.
Carlos: And remember hotshots, you can always pick up the questions, answers and comments on the answers by downloading the premium audio track labeled “tarea”.
Natalia: The homework.


Carlos: You know what? That just about does it for today. Now don’t forget to stop by spanishpod101.com and pick up lesson notes.
Natalia: It has the conversation transcript.
Carlos: Vocabs, sample sentences, grammar explanation.
Natalia: And a cultural insight section.
Carlos: You know, singing in Spanish...
Natalia: Really helps you remember faster.
Carlos: But you know what, don’t take our word for it. Please have a look for yourself.
Natalia: And let us know what you think.
Carlos: Gracias por escucharnos, suerte con los estudios. ¡Chao!
Natalia: Que les vaya bien. Adiós.


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Dialog - Bilingual




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SpanishPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 06:30 PM
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Thanks to Herman Pearl for the music in today’s lesson. Once you have bought everything you wanted, what's next?

SpanishPod101.com Verified
Saturday at 11:44 AM
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Hi Soha,

Thank you for posting!

This affirmation is correct -

"*For regular -AR- and -IR- verbs, the Present Indicative and Preterite Indicative forms are

identical (i.e. terminamos el trabajo ayer, 'we finished the job yesterday', or terminamos el

trabajo a las seis de la tarde, 'we finish the job at six in the evening')."

>What is missing is to indicate that this rule is only valid in the 1st person plural form - Nosotros.

To clarify this let me give you an example using an -IR ending regular verb -

decidir "to decide"

- Decidimos el horario ayer. ["We decided the schedule yesterday."]

- Decidimos el horario los viernes. ["We decide the schedule on Fridays."]

Now if you use the ER regular verbs, you would notice the change:

comer "to eat"

- Comimos mucho ayer. ["We ate a lot yesterday."]

- Comemos mucho todos los lunes. ["We eat a lot every Monday."]

We have updated the lesson notes.

Please, let us know if it is clear now.

Thank you for your patience.



Friday at 11:23 PM
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you wrote in the PDF the following: *For regular -AR- and -IR- verbs, the Present Indicative and Preterite Indicative forms are identical

. On the other hand,-ER- verbs do not follow this rule

I think you are wrong as

the nosotros form is the same in both the present and the preterit tense in AR ending

while it is not for ER and IR ending verbs

Please check


SpanishPod101.com Verified
Saturday at 03:30 PM
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Hola Jane,

Gracias por compartir!

Es mejor que investigues sobre ambos países y ciudades, y elegir según tus preferencias personales.

Ambos son interesantes países!



Team SpanishPod101.com

Jane de Vries
Tuesday at 01:10 PM
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Estoy una mujer madura ahora. (65 anos.) Yo habia pasado tiempo en Ecuador y Columbia pero necesito un cambio. La gente dice Costa Rica es mejor, pero estoy interesando en Peru y Santiago, Chile pero. como es posible decidir? BTW, you two DO rock!

Tuesday at 10:03 AM
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Hola Feliz Añonuevo,

Thank you for your comment!. Going to a Spanish speaking country for language immersion? i think that's great! If you prefer the accent in América del Sur,then I think it will be better for you to go to South America. I understand you might be a bit scared about going to South America but it is just a little bit dangerous like everywhere else. I've never been in Colombia but I've heard people is really nice so I'm sure you will learn a lot there besides having a great time. I recommend you to search more about the country you want to go and try to talk with people that have been there so you will have a better idea. Also once you are living in South America it will be easier for you to check the other South American countries and you could check by yourself the different accents we have depending on the country. Good luck :wink:!


Feliz Añonuevo
Wednesday at 11:57 PM
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Hi Carlos and Natal! Just wanna let you guys know that you both are my favorite favorite hosts here. You guys rock! :wink: Btw, I'm thinking of going to Spain for language immersion. Do you think it's a good idea, or is it better to go to Latin America? I personally like the accent in America del Sur, esp. Colombians' coz they speak clearly.. Pero do you think it's safe for a 26 year-old Asian girl to live there alone? I've never been there. Please let me know what you guys think. Me gustaria hablar Español perfectamente. :oops: