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Lesson Transcript

Lizzie: Bienvenidos a SpanishPod101.com!
Lizzie: Buenos días, soy Lizzie Stolear.
Allan: Allan La Rue here. Beginner Series, Lesson number 33 – Meet my relatives – 1.
Lizzie: Muy bienvenidos damas y caballeros a otra lección de SpanishPod101.com.
Allan: Where we bring the Spanish-speaking world to you.
Lizzie: Transmitiendo on demand hoy nos toca otra lección del ciclo de nivel principiante.
Allan: Allan and Lizzie back for Beginner Lesson 33. ¡Habla amiga! Today we start what we believe is going to be another stellar group of lessons. In today’s “Meet my relatives - 1” we’ll hear Marcos, who’s being invited over to Rosana’s house for a Sunday meal. And this means that a lot of her family’s there.
Lizzie: So Rosana wants to make sure that she introduces him to her relatives.
Allan: Right. You Latinos sure know how to make someone feel at home. What great formality.
Lizzie: De acuerdo. ¿Y para la gramática de hoy?
Allan: Para la gramática vamos a estudiar el tiempo pretérito perfecto con el verbo presentar. The preterite perfect with the verb presentar.
Lizzie: Sounds like the kind of thing that can really help you socialize, no?
Allan: Definitely. Now, what is so valuable about learning how to introduce people is that you learn to make connections, friends meet friends. And before you know it, you have varios círculos de amigos.
Lizzie: What has your experience been like socializing in Lima, Allan?
Allan: Lizzie, I have to tell you, it’s really been great. Peruvians are so very open and friendly people, and particularly with foreigners. I mean they’re so welcoming. It’s kind of embarrassing to me to think that back home we don’t always give foreign visitors the same welcome.
Lizzie: Sometimes you have to travel to have your eyes opened.
Allan: That’s for sure, Liz. So, guys, we’ve got our work cut out for us today.
Lizzie: In that case, let’s get right into…
ROSANA: Marcos, ¿te he presentado a mi prima, Laura?
MARCOS: No, no creo. ¿Quién es ella?
ROSANA: Es la hija de mi tío Victor, el hermano de mi mamá.
MARCOS: O sea, ¿ustedes son primas hermanas?
ROSANA: Claro. Su papá y mi mamá son hermanos. Déjame presentarte.
ROSANA: Marcos, have I introduced ya' to my cousin, Laura?
MARCOS: No, no I don't believe so. Who is she?
ROSANA: She's the daughter of my Uncle Victor, my mom's brother.
MARCOS: So then, you guys are first cousins?
ROSANA: Right. Her dad and my mom are siblings. Let me introduce ya'.
Allan: That’s a classic situation, not just meeting people, but being introduced to relatives.
Lizzie: Sí, la familia es muy importante en la cultura latina.
Allan: Sin duda. Lizzie, ¿tienes una familia grande o chica?
Lizzie: Pequeñita. Solo vivo con mi mamá.
Allan: It’s pretty small, Lizzie. A wife, two kids, a dog, a hamster, and of course, the in-laws.
Lizzie: A hamster?
Allan: Now that we’ve gone through the conversation, what do you say we run through some of the vocabulary?
Lizzie: Sounds like a good idea.
Allan: So let’s begin with…
Lizzie: presentar
Allan: To introduce.
Lizzie: presentar, presentar
Allan: Next we have…
Lizzie: presentado
Allan: Introduced.
Lizzie: presentado, presentado
Allan: Next we have…
Lizzie: primo, prima
Allan: Cousin.
Lizzie: primo, prima. primo, prima
Allan: Next we’ll hear…
Lizzie: hijo, hija
Allan: Son, daughter, children.
Lizzie: hijo, hija. hijo, hija
Allan: Now let’s hear…
Lizzie: tío, tía
Allan: Uncle, aunt.
Lizzie: tío, tía. tío, tía
Allan: And finally…
Lizzie: hermano, hermana
Allan: Brother, sister, siblings.
Lizzie: hermano, hermana, hermano, hermana
Allan: And now, guys, a quick tip to keep your Spanish nice and crisp. The word presentado.
Lizzie: presentado
Allan: In Spanish, you’ll find that many words end in ADO, A-D-O, and IDO, I-D-O, just like we see here in presentado.
Lizzie: Or like hablado and comido.
Allan: Exactly. Now, the thing is when we’re speaking quickly, it’s not uncommon to kind of drop that letter D in the ending and say presentao.
Lizzie: presentao
Allan: But it’s probably something you should get in the habit of hearing more than saying.
Lizzie: Ahora estudiemos como se empleaban algunos de estos vocablos en la conversación de hoy.
Allan: ¿Por dónde deseas empezar?
Lizzie: Empecemos con el sustantivo hermano.
Allan: Alright, and this noun can be either masculine, hermano, or feminine, hermana.
Lizzie: Y como sustantivo masculino, ‘qué significa?
Allan: As a masculine noun, it means “brother” in the singular, that is. In the plural it has two meanings.
Lizzie: ¿Y cuáles son?
Allan: Well, it can mean “brothers”, which should come as no surprise, but it can also mean siblings since in Spanish the masculine plural is preferred to make up for the lack of a neutral form. So when we’re talking about a group of males and females, we’ll use the masculine plural form.
Lizzie: ¿Y el sustantivo femenino?
Allan: That just means “sister” in the singular and “sisters” in the plural.
Lizzie: Hermano, hermanos, hermana, hermanas.
Allan: Lizzie, ¿Cómo se llama el hijo de tu tío?
Lizzie: Se llama Pablo.
Allan: ¿Enserio?
Lizzie: Es mi primo.
Allan: So the son of your uncle is your primo, your cousin. This is a great word. Aside from referring to someone in your family, it’s also used to refer to what we might call in English a family friend or extended family.
Lizzie: Right. Like if you’re invited over to my house and my cousins meet you. They might start calling you primo to make you feel like you’re part of the family.
Allan: Right. That’s so nice. And with this one, too, we can use it as a masculine or feminine noun, even though we’ll always translate it as “cousin”.
Lizzie: Primo, primos, prima, primas.
Allan: So, moving on, what’s another way to refer to the son of your uncle?
Lizzie: es el hijo de mi tío.
Allan: Hey, we’re on a roll. Another noun that can be either masculine or feminine. And this one, like hermano, has two different translations depending on the gender.
Lizzie: La forma masculina hijo.
Allan: So in the masculine singular this means “son”, and in the feminine, Lizzie?
Lizzie: Hija.
Allan: “Daughter”. But, again, when we’re talking about sons and daughters, we’re going to need to use the masculine plural form hijos, and this means “children”.
Lizzie: Alright, last word.
Allan: Let’s go for four in a row.
Lizzie: ¡Cómo no!
Allan: Tio y tia.
Lizzie: Pues, no es nada más que “uncle” and “aunt”.
Allan: And your tios. How do you say tios in English?
Lizzie: I prefer not to answer. Can we talk about something else?
Allan: Come on. No, it’s an unfair question. There’s no clean translation for the word tios. We have to describe it and say “aunts and uncles”.
Lizzie: Prosigamos con la gramática. .

Lesson focus

Allan: Me parece muy bien. So today’s grammar topic is twofold. We’re going to learn a little more about how to conjugate a verb in the preterit perfect tense, and we’re going to see how the verb presentar is used to introduce someone to someone else.
Lizzie: Sounds challenging.
Allan: Well, Liz, it’s supposed to be challenging. I mean the main goal of this Beginner Series is to prepare our listeners for the Lower Intermediate Series, where you basically study Spanish in Spanish. So it’s our job to make them ready.
Lizzie: Entonces vamos de una vez.
Allan: So let’s start by grounding this in the conversation. Rosana asks Marcos ¿te he presentado a mi prima, Laura?.
Lizzie: Let me guess, you want to know what the verb is?
Allan: You read my mind.
Lizzie: Well, I can't tell you which one it is because there are two.
Allan: Alright, cuáles son?
Lizzie: Son haber y presentar.
Allan: Sure, catch me on a technicality, Lizzie. But as we’ve said before, in order to express what has happened, we use the verb haber conjugated in the present tense and then the past participle of the main verb. So here, he presentado, “I have introduced” - as a statement, and “have I introduced?” as a question.
Lizzie: But there’s also the pronoun te. She asks ¿te he presentado a mi prima, Laura?
Allan: The thing is in Spanish we introduce someone to someone else, so te presento a mi prima, “I introduce you to my cousin”. And in the preterit perfect, te he presentado a mi prima.
Lizzie: It sounds a little strange in English.
Allan: Yeah, I don’t think anyone would really put it this way.
Lizzie: How would you put it?
Allan: Well, it’s common to say something like “I’d like you to meet my cousin” or simply “Marcos, this is my cousin, Laura”.
Lizzie: I see.
Allan: So let’s say I'm talking about my cousin who I’ve recently introduced to my friend, I can say le he presentado a mi amiga.
Lizzie: Right. And I could say pero no me has presentado a él.
Allan: And that means?
Lizzie: But you haven’t introduced me to him.
Allan: Well, I will introduce you right now. Alright, guys, that’s all she wrote.
Lizzie: Creo que ha sido una lección muy exitosa.


Allan: Now, remember that these lessons are designed to be used in tandem with the Language Tools in the Premium Learning Center at SpanishPod101.com. So if you don’t already have a Premium Membership, you can sign up for free. It’s a seven-day trial, check it out! See what it’s all about.
Lizzie: Looking for a greater challenge? Check out Kathy and Ana in our Lower Intermediate Series.
Allan: And if you’re looking for an even greater challenge, come down and visit us here in Lima, Peru, and experience an immersion program first hand at El Sol Spanish School. Our classes start every single Monday. Chao, people!
Lizzie: Chao todos.


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Please to leave a comment.
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SpanishPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 06:30 PM
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Thanks to Kevin Macleod for the music in today's lesson. Here's a trick question that we touched upon in this lesson: What's the difference between "presentar" and "introduccir"?

SpanishPod101.com Verified
Friday at 10:32 AM
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Hola Jacob,

Thank you for your questions.

Yes, 'le' is an INDIRECT object pronoun and 'lo' is the DIRECT object pronoun.

Remember you won't be using the same order for question than for sentences.

Sigamos practicando!



Team SpanishPod101.com

Friday at 08:48 PM
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Hey! Thanks for a nice lesson. A few questions.

"The use of "le" is a little more formal than "lo" [in regards to "Le he llamado tres veces."].

Would you like to clarify this? As far as I understand, 'le' is an INDIRECT object pronoun and 'lo' is the DIRECT object pronoun.

And another situation in the grammar notes:

"When we use a personal pronoun as a direct object with the preterit perfect tense, it must be placed before the verb.

Note the details of the sentence, "¿Te he presentado a mi prima, Laura?" (Have I introduced you to my cousin Laura?)."

It seems to be a similar confusion to that of the preceding lesson. If I'm not wrong, in this situation, `te` is an INDIRECT object pronoun. I think that leads to significant confusion for new learners unfamiliar with object pronouns?

SpanishPod101.com Verified
Saturday at 02:23 PM
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Hi MJ,

Hello Mary,

Thank you for posting!

This topic is very confusing because we tend to translate literally, the English tense Present Perfect (ex. She has worked here for 2 years.) to Presente Perfecto (which in Spanish is called Pretérito Perfecto Compuesto, also known as antepresente. ex. Ella ha trabajado aquí por 2 años.)

The term "Presente Perfecto" is just a literal translation of the English tense. The correct way to refer to it in Spanish is "Pretérito Perfecto."

As a reference you can find information about the Spanish Tenses on this website (note that the Real Academia de la Lengua Española, is one of the most reliable sources of information regarding the Spanish language):


Please, let me know if you have any more questions.

Hasta pronto,


Team SpanishPod101.com

SpanishPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 12:46 PM
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Hola MJ,

Thank you for your questions.

1) We don't say "primera prima" for "first cousins" in Spanish instead we call it "prima hermana".

Sigamos practicando!



Team SpanishPod101.com

Saturday at 09:50 AM
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A couple questions -

1) In the dialogue, "primas hermanas" is translated to first cousins. Wouldn't that be "primeras primas" since hermanas means sisters? Or is this an idiomatic way of saying first cousins? Literally translated, "primas hermanas' seems to mean "cousins sisters," which doesn't make sense in English. Spanish dictionary translates "first cousins" as "primeras primas." This was not addressed in the lesson dialogue that I recall, but I was curious.

2) I see below that commenter Mary has pointed out that the tense we are learning in the lesson is actually the present perfect and not the preterit perfect. I pointed out the same mistake in an earlier lesson when this tense was first introduced (I think it was beginner 20, but I am not sure, was a couple lessons ago. No response yet to my comment in that earlier lesson). Carla, you answered Mary and said she was right, but is there a plan to correct this in all the lessons that get it wrong?

Wednesday at 09:33 PM
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Is the verb tense introduced in this lesson preterit perfect or present perfect? My conjugation chart says present perfect but the lesson refers to preterit perfect.

Saturday at 07:33 AM
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In the written transcript, the question Lizzie asks Allan about his family is missing.

Lizzie: Pequeñita. Solo vivo con mi mamá. -----Missing question

Allan: It’s pretty small, Lizzie. A wife, two kids, a dog, a hamster, and of course, the inlaws.

Regarding the confusion some are having about the use of le as opposed to lo or la, I think it just is because of the translation. "Marcos, ¿le he presentado a mi prima, Laura" is translated as "Marcos, have I introduced you to my cousin Laura". But since le is used, a more literal translation would be "Marcos, have I introduced Laura to you". In the first translation, in English, the word "you" is a direct object. In the second, the word "you" is an indirect object.

Spanishpod101.com Verified
Friday at 09:45 PM
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Hola Ken,

¿cómo estás?

Thanks for posting.

We’ll consider your feedback for our future development.:wink:

Let us know if you have any question.


Team Spanishpod101.com

Friday at 07:58 AM
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I really enjoy your lessos. I think I should have started at a more advanced level but this is a wonderful refresher. But PLEASE do not translate words to English as "ya"; always use "you" please. Por favor!

Spanishpod101.com Verified
Monday at 11:39 AM
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Hola Abby,

Both sentences are correct.

The use of "le" is a little more formal than "lo"

Please keep tuned, we have a new lesson for you every week.



Team SpanishPod101.com