Vocabulary (Review)

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Lesson Transcript

Anna: Hola soy Anna.
Eric: Eric here! Are You Ready For Your Spanish Test?
Anna: In this lesson, you'll learn new ways to use the verb estar.
Eric: This conversation takes place on the phone in the afternoon.
Anna: And it’s between Santiago, Paula, and Daniel, who are talking about coming exams.
Eric: The speakers are in a formal situation, so they'll be speaking formally.
Anna: Let's listen to the conversation.
Santiago: ¿Cómo estáis?
Paula: No muy bien.. estoy nerviosa por el examen de mañana.
Daniel: Sí, yo también estoy preocupado.
Santiago: Pues yo estoy tranquilo, he estudiado mucho.
Eric: Now let's listen to the same conversation at a slow speed.
Santiago: ¿Cómo estáis?
Paula: No muy bien.. estoy nerviosa por el examen de mañana.
Daniel: Sí, yo también estoy preocupado.
Santiago: Pues yo estoy tranquilo, he estudiado mucho.
Eric: Let's now listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Santiago: ¿Cómo estáis?
Santiago: How are you both?
Paula: No muy bien.. estoy nerviosa por el examen de mañana.
Paula: Not very good... I'm nervous because of tomorrow's exam.
Daniel: Sí, yo también estoy preocupado.
Daniel: Yeah, I'm also worried.
Santiago: Pues yo estoy tranquilo, he estudiado mucho.
Santiago: Well, I'm relaxed. I've studied a lot!
Anna: Selectividad is what Spanish people call the "Spanish University Access Tests" or Prueba de Acceso a la Universidad.
Eric: This is an exam taken by students after high school in order to get into university. It is made up of two parts—the common part and the specific part.
Anna: For the common part of the exam, every student takes four or five tests in the same subjects—Spanish language and literature; Spanish history; a foreign language, which is usually English; and a subject of the student's choice from his or her high school.
Eric: The second part, the specific part, of the exam is not required, but students may take it to increase their score. Students can choose from between two and four subject areas.
Anna: That's right. For example, there are exams in Latin, Physics, Technical Drawing, and the history of art.
Eric: Okay, now let's take a look at the vocab.
Eric: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is..
Anna: estar
Eric: to be
Anna: estar [slowly]
Anna: estar
Eric: Next we have..
Anna: bien
Eric: fine, good
Anna: bien
Anna: bien
Eric: Next we have..
Anna: nervioso, nerviosa
Eric: nervous
Anna: nervioso, nerviosa [slowly]
Anna: nervioso, nerviosa
Eric: Next we have..
Anna: examen
Eric: examination, exam
Anna: examen [slowly]
Anna: examen
Eric: Next we have..
Anna: preocupado, preocupada
Eric: worried
Anna: preocupado, preocupada [slowly]
Anna: preocupado, preocupada
Eric: Next we have..
Anna: tranquilo, tranquila
Eric: calm, relaxed, tranquil
Anna: tranquilo, tranquila [slowly]
Anna: tranquilo, tranquila
Eric: Next we have..
Anna: estudiar
Eric: to study
Anna: estudiar [slowly]
Anna: estudiar
Eric: And last..
Anna: mucho, mucha
Eric: much, a lot
Anna: mucho, mucha [slowly]
Anna: mucho, mucha
Eric: Let's have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Anna: The first word we'll look at is estudiar.
Eric: This is a Spanish regular verb belonging to the first conjugation group, the -ar ending group.
Anna: That's right. This verb means "to study." We have a conjugation table in the lesson notes, so be sure to check that out. An example sentence would be Estudio química en el colegio, which means "I study chemistry at school."
Eric: What's our next word?
Anna: The next word we'll look at is preocupado, which means "worried." It's an adjective that shows anxiety or agitation about something.
Eric: That's right. It's a masculine word and it’s in its singular form. Could you give us the feminine form?
Anna: Sure. That would be preocupada. So, if you're a girl you would say, Estoy preocupada por él, which means "I'm worried about him." But if you're a guy, you'd say, Estoy preocupado por él.
Eric: The next word we're going to look at is...
Anna: Tranquilo, which has several meanings in English. It can mean "calm," "peaceful," or "tranquil" depending on the situation. An example sentence would be, Estoy tranquilo porque he hecho todo lo que dijo, which means, "I'm calm because I did everything he said."
Eric: And remember that the adjectives must agree with the number and gender of the noun they accompany, so we have...
Anna: Tranquilo, tranquila, tranquilos, and tranquilas. Okay, the last word we're going to look at is examen, which means "exam" or "examination."
Eric: These are usually done to test the suitability of a person to a profession or to demonstrate their knowledge about what they studied.
Anna: An example sentence would be, El examen fue muy difícil, which means, "The examination was very difficult."
Eric: Okay, now on to the grammar.

Lesson focus

Anna: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use the verb estar with feeling adjectives to show temporary situations. In the dialogue, we heard the phrase Estoy nerviosa por el examen.
Eric: Which we translated as, "I'm nervous because of the exam."
Anna: So, in this lesson, we'll focus on the adjectives that show feelings or moods in temporary situations, and how to use the verb estar with them.
Eric: First of all, let's take a look at the verb "to be" in Spanish, because it causes some trouble. There are two translations of the verb "to be" into Spanish,
Anna: Estar and ser. We use the verb ser for a constant condition that won't vary at any time. For example, Yo soy Anna, which means "I'm Anna." The verb estar, however, shows temporary situations or conditions.
Eric: That's right. Can you give us an example?
Anna: Sure. Estoy en el aeropuerto, which means "I'm at the airport."
Eric: There are some situations that are a little grey. For example, the sentence, "You're pretty," can be translated in two ways.
Anna: Exactly. You could use the estar verb and say, Tú estás guapa—as in “right now”, or “today”. Or you can use the ser verb and say, Tú eres guapa—meaning “always.”
Eric: Both are correct.
Anna: Let's take a look at the conjugation for estar. Estar is an irregular verb, which means it doesn't follow the patterns we've learned so far. In fact, it has its own conjugation pattern.
Eric: So, how do I say, "I am?"
Anna: Yo estoy.
Eric: And "You are" in informal speech?
Anna: That’s Tú estás.
Eric: How about "You are" in formal speech?
Anna: Usted está.
Eric: And "He/she/it is?"
Anna: Él está or Ella está.
Eric: "We are?"
Anna: Nosotros estamos or Nosotras estamos.
Eric: "You all are" in informal speech?
Anna: Vosotros estáis or Vosotras estáis.
Eric: "You all are" in formal speech?
Anna: Ustedes están.
Eric: And "They are?"
Anna: Ellos están or Ellas están.
Eric: Now, let's look at a few example sentences in context.
Anna: Okay so, sentence one is Él está pensativo.
Eric: Which means, "He’s thoughtful," or "He’s thinking about something."
Anna: Here, the sentence structure is that you have the verb estar conjugated the way you want it and then you just add the "feeling word. "Another example is Nosotros estamos avergonzados, which means "We're ashamed" or "We're feeling ashamed."
Eric: Okay, how about two more sentences?
Anna: For example, El mar está tranquilo ahora mismo, which means, "The sea is quiet right now." And Ella está encantadora hoy, which means, "She is charming today."
Eric: Note that in this last sentence, the implication is that she isn't normally a charming person. Alright, before we go, let’s look at the answer from the previous lesson’s homework.
Anna: The answer to the tarea is sentence number three. The sentence using the verb haber in future tense is ¿Habrá tarea hoy?
Eric: And this week we’ll ask you to choose the correct sentence.
Anna: 1) El estudiante es hambriento hoy.
2) Mi hermana está cansada.
3) Nosotros están tristes.


Eric: Keep in mind that only one is correct! Well that just about does it for this lesson. Thanks for listening, everyone,
Anna: ¡Hasta luego!